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Akt Promotes Cell Survival by Phosphorylating and Inhibiting a Forkhead Transcription Factor
Cellular survival: a play in three Akts.
The mechanisms by which survival factors regulate the PI3K/c-Akt cascade, the evidence that activation of the PI 3K/ c-AKT pathway promotes cell survival, and the current spectrum of c- akt targets and their roles in mediating c- Akt-dependent cell survival are reviewed.
Stress-Dependent Regulation of FOXO Transcription Factors by the SIRT1 Deacetylase
One way in which members of the Sir2 family of proteins may increase organismal longevity is by tipping FOXO-dependent responses away from apoptosis and toward stress resistance.
Cell survival promoted by the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway by transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
The findings suggest that the MAPK signaling pathway promotes cell survival by a dual mechanism comprising the posttranslational modification and inactivation of a component of the cell death machinery and the increased transcription of pro-survival genes.
The Energy Sensor AMP-activated Protein Kinase Directly Regulates the Mammalian FOXO3 Transcription Factor*
It is found that AMPK directly regulates mammalian FOXO3, a member of the FOXO family of Forkhead transcription factors known to promote resistance to oxidative stress, tumor suppression, and longevity, by phosphorylation by AMPK at six previously unidentified regulatory sites.
FOXO transcription factors at the interface between longevity and tumor suppression
Consistent with the notion that stress resistance is highly coupled with lifespan extension, activation of FOXO transcription factors in worms and flies increases longevity and suggests that FOXO factors play a tumor suppressor role in a variety of cancers.
Protein Kinase SGK Mediates Survival Signals by Phosphorylating the Forkhead Transcription Factor FKHRL1 (FOXO3a)
- A. Brunet, Jongsun Park, Hien G. Tran, Linda S. Hu, B. Hemmings, M. Greenberg
- BiologyMolecular and Cellular Biology
- 1 February 2001
SGK1, like Akt, promotes cell survival and that it does so in part by phosphorylating and inactivating FKHRL1, however, SGK and Akt display differences with respect to the efficacy with which they phosphorylate the three regulatory sites on FKhRL1.
Transcription-dependent and -independent control of neuronal survival by the PI3K–Akt signaling pathway
The FoxO code
The FoxO family of Forkhead transcription factors plays an important role in longevity and tumor suppression by upregulating target genes involved in stress resistance, metabolism, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and an intriguing possibility is that FoxO PTMs may act as a ‘molecular FoxO code’ read by selective protein partners to rapidly regulate gene-expression programs.