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The revolution that wasn't: a new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior.
TLDR
The African Middle and early Late Pleistocene hominid fossil record is fairly continuous and in it can be recognized a number of probably distinct species that provide plausible ancestors for H. sapiens, and suggests a gradual assembling of the package of modern human behaviors in Africa, and its later export to other regions of the Old World.
Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium)
TLDR
Direct evidence is reported for Neanderthal consumption of a variety of plant foods, in the form of phytoliths and starch grains recovered from dental calculus of Neanderthal skeletons from Shanidar Cave, Iraq, and Spy Cave, Belgium, suggesting an overall sophistication in Neanderthal dietary regimes.
A middle stone age worked bone industry from Katanda, Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire.
TLDR
Three archaeological sites at Katanda on the Upper Semliki River in the Western Rift Valley of Zaire have provided evidence for a well-developed bone industry in a Middle Stone Age context, indicating that a complex subsistence specialization had developed in Africa by this time.
Dating and context of three middle stone age sites with bone points in the Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire.
TLDR
In eastern Zaire, archaeological sites with bone points have yielded dates older than 89(-15)+22 thousand years ago by several techniques, which are consistent with this age.
Older than the Oldowan? Rethinking the emergence of hominin tool use
Using information from primatology, functional morphology, phylogeny, archeology, and paleoanthropology, we argue that before 2.5 mya hominins may have used tools, including unmodified and possibly
Dating Pleistocene Archeological Sites by Protein Diagenesis in Ostrich Eggshell
TLDR
Eggshells of the African ostrich have been shown by laboratory simulation experiments to retain their indigenous organic matrix residues during diagenesis far better than any other calcified tissue yet studied and have been calibrated for local temperature effects and used to estimate the age range of stratified archeological sites.
Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age
TLDR
Three papers present the oldest East African evidence of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) and elucidate the system of technology and behavior associated with the origin of Homo sapiens and present evidence for the demise of Acheulean technology that preceded the MSA.
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