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Scaling body support in mammals: limb posture and muscle mechanics.
TLDR
It appears that similar peak bone stresses and muscle stresses in large and small mammals are achieved primarily by a size-dependent change in locomotor limb posture: small animals run with crouched postures, whereas larger species run more upright. Expand
Bipedal locomotion: effects of speed, size and limb posture in birds and humans
TLDR
Seven species of ground-dwelling birds and high-speed light films were taken of humans to compare kinematic patterns of avian with human bipedalism, finding differences appear to reflect a spring-like run that is stiff in humans but more compliant in birds. Expand
Biomechanics of mammalian terrestrial locomotion.
TLDR
The consistent pattern of locomotor stresses developed in long bones at different speeds and gaits within a species may have important implications for how bones adaptively remodel to changes in stress. Expand
Allometry of quadrupedal locomotion: the scaling of duty factor, bone curvature and limb orientation to body size.
  • A. Biewener
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1 July 1983
TLDR
Preliminary data provide preliminary data which appear to explain, along with the decrease in bone curvature and angle, the similar magnitudes of peak bone stress developed during locomotion in different sized animals. Expand
Muscle mechanical advantage of human walking and running: implications for energy cost.
TLDR
It is concluded that the decrease in limb mechanical advantage (mean limb extensor EMA) and increase in knee extensor impulse during running likely contribute to the higher metabolic cost of transport in running than in walking. Expand
Energetics and mechanics of human running on surfaces of different stiffnesses.
TLDR
Results indicate that surface stiffness affects running economy without affecting running support mechanics, and postulate that an increased energy rebound from the compliant surfaces studied contributes to the enhanced running economy. Expand
KINEMATIC AND ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF THE BODY AXIS DURING TERRESTRIAL AND AQUATIC LOCOMOTION IN THE SALAMANDER AMBYSTOMA TIGRINUM
TLDR
The transition from a traveling axial wave during swimming to a standing axialWave during trotting in A. tigrinum may be an appropriate analogy for similar transitions in axial locomotor function during the original evolution of terrestriality in early tetrapods. Expand
Biomechanical consequences of scaling
  • A. Biewener
  • Mathematics, Medicine
  • Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 1 May 2005
SUMMARY To function over a lifetime of use, materials and structures must be designed to have sufficient factors of safety to avoid failure. Vertebrates are generally built from materials havingExpand
Muscle and Tendon Contributions to Force, Work, and Elastic Energy Savings: A Comparative Perspective
TLDR
Muscle‐tendon architecture underlies muscle function and tendons provide the majority of elastic energy savings, but elastic savings is probably constrained by the need to reduce compliance for accurate control of position. Expand
Muscle-tendon stresses and elastic energy storage during locomotion in the horse.
  • A. Biewener
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B…
  • 1 May 1998
TLDR
The long length of horse tendons in relation to extremely short pennate muscle fibers suggests a highly specialized design for economical muscle force generation and enhanced elastic energy savings. Expand
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