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Type II polyketide synthases: gaining a deeper insight into enzymatic teamwork.
This review covers advances in understanding of the biosynthesis of polyketides produced by type II PKS systems at the genetic, biochemical and structural levels.
Genes and Enzymes Involved in Caffeic Acid Biosynthesis in the Actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis
TLDR
To investigate candidate genes responsible for the formation of trans-m,p-dihydroxycinnamic acid (caffeic acid) as part of the saccharomicin aglycon, gene expression experiments were carried out in Streptomyces fradiae XKS.
The granaticin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces violaceoruber Tü22: sequence analysis and expression in a heterologous host.
TLDR
Putative functional assignments of the products of most of the newly discovered ORFs were made, including those of genes involved in the PKS and tailoring Steps in the biosynthesis of the granaticin aglycone, steps in the deoxy sugar pathway, and putative regulatory and export functions.
Regulatory role of microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase for shikonin biosynthesis in Lithospermum erythrorhizon cell suspension cultures
TLDR
It is indicated that HMGR plays a significant role in the regulation of shikonin biosynthesis and that the control appears to act at the transcriptional level.
Cloning and characterization of a gene cluster from Streptomyces cyanogenus S136 probably involved in landomycin biosynthesis.
From a cosmid library of Streptomyces cyanogenus S136, DNA fragments encompassing approximately 35 kb of the presumed landomycin biosynthetic gene cluster were identified and sequenced, revealing 32
Cloning of an avilamycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tü57
TLDR
Gene insertional inactivation experiments of AviE abolished avilamycin production, indicating the involvement of aviE in the biosynthesis of avil Amycins, as well as three open reading frames (ORF1 to ORF4) within the sequenced fragment.
The avilamycin resistance determinants AviRa and AviRb methylate 23S rRNA at the guanosine 2535 base and the uridine 2479 ribose
TLDR
Understanding of the probable ribosome contacts made by orthosomycins and of how these antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis is refined, to define new resistance mechanisms.
Marker removal from actinomycetes genome using Flp recombinase.
TLDR
A synthetic gene encoding the Flp recombinase with a GC content of 60.6% optimized for expression in high-GC bacteria is constructed and removed an apramycin resistance gene flanked by FRT sites from the chromosome of actinomycetes with an efficiency of 40%.
The future of natural products as a source of new antibiotics.
TLDR
Novel methods and technologies that will increase the success rate for identifying novel antibiotics from natural sources are discussed.
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