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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
TLDR
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
Cellular Responses to Cisplatin-Induced DNA Damage
TLDR
This paper summarizes the current understandings regarding the mechanisms by which cisplatin induces cell death and the bases of cis Platin resistance, and discusses various steps, including the entry of cis platin inside cells, DNA repair, drug detoxification, DNA damage response, and regulation of cisPlatin-induced apoptosis by protein kinases.
Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases
TLDR
This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activatedprotein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein Kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.
Overexpression of metallothionein confers resistance to anticancer drugs.
TLDR
Tumor cell lines with acquired resistance to the antineoplastic agent cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) overexpressed metallothionein and demonstrated cross-resistance to alkylating agents such as chlorambucil and melphalan.
Inhibition of ERK attenuates autophagy and potentiates tumour necrosis factor-α-induced cell death in MCF-7 cells
TLDR
The data suggest that TNF‐induces autophagy through ERK1/2 and that inhibition of autophophagy increases cellular sensitivity to TNF.
Proteolytic Activation of Protein Kinase C-ε by Caspase-mediated Processing and Transduction of Antiapoptotic Signals*
TLDR
In vitro-translated novel PKCε is processed by human recombinant caspase-3, -7, and -9 and cleaved primarily at the SSPD↓G site to generate two fragments with an approximate molecular mass of 43 kDa, suggesting that cleavage of PKCα by casp enzyme-7 at theSSPD→G site results in the activation ofPKCε.
Two Faces of Protein Kinase Cδ: The Contrasting Roles of PKCδ in Cell Survival and Cell Death
TLDR
While PKCδ generally functions as a proapoptotic protein during DNA damage-induced apoptosis, it can act as an antiapoptotics protein during receptor-initiated cell death.
Protein kinase Cepsilon makes the life and death decision.
TLDR
This review focuses on how PKCepsilon collaborates with other signaling pathways, such as Ras/Raf/ERK and Akt, to regulate cell survival and cell death and how it mediates its antiapoptotic signal by altering the level or function of pro- and antiapopotic Bcl-2 family members.
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