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Integrating economic costs into conservation planning.
This work focuses on what costs are, why they are important to consider, how they can be quantified and the benefits of their inclusion in priority setting, and considers prospects for integrating them into conservation planning.
Farming and the Fate of Wild Nature
It is shown that the best type of farming for species persistence depends on the demand for agricultural products and on how the population densities of different species on farmland change with agricultural yield, and that high-yield farming may allow more species to persist.
Monitoring Matters: Examining the Potential of Locally-based Approaches
Monitoring of biodiversity and resource use by professional scientists is often costly and hard to sustain, especially in developing countries, where financial resources are limited. Moreover, such
Knowing but not doing: selecting priority conservation areas and the research-implementation gap.
A reevaluation of the conceptual and operational basis of conservation planning research is urgently required and the following actions are recommended for beginning a process for bridging the research-implementation gap in conservation planning.
Economic Reasons for Conserving Wild Nature
It is estimated that the overall benefit:cost ratio of an effective global program for the conservation of remaining wild nature is at least 100:1.
Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas
The results indicate that African PAs have generally failed to mitigate human-induced threats to African large mammal populations, but they also show some successes.
Conservation conflicts across Africa.
It is found that human population density is positively correlated with species richness of birds, mammals, snakes, and amphibians and this association holds for widespread, narrowly endemic, and threatened species and looks set to persist in the face of foreseeable population growth.
Reconciling Food Production and Biodiversity Conservation: Land Sharing and Land Sparing Compared
Compared crop yields and densities of bird and tree species across gradients of agricultural intensity in southwest Ghana and northern India, land sparing is a more promising strategy for minimizing negative impacts of food production, at both current and anticipated future levels of production.
Global variation in terrestrial conservation costs, conservation benefits, and unmet conservation needs
It is found that the annual costs of effective field-based conservation vary enormously, across seven orders of magnitude, from <$0.1 to >$1,000,000 per km2, and substantial increased investment in tropical conservation is urgently required if opportunities for cost-effective action are not to be missed.
Global mapping of ecosystem services and conservation priorities
The preliminary results show that regions selected to maximize biodiversity provide no more ecosystem services than regions chosen randomly, and spatial concordance among different services, and between ecosystem services and established conservation priorities, varies widely.