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Characterization of the Receptor-Ligand Pathways Important for Entry and Survival of Francisella tularensis in Human Macrophages
TLDR
It is demonstrated that human macrophages phagocytose more Francisella than monocytes with contributions from CR3, Fcγ receptors, the MR, and SP-A present in lung alveoli.
IL28B and the control of hepatitis C virus infection.
TLDR
The genetic studies that uncovered the association between IL28B and HCV clearance, the biology of IFN-λ3, the clinical implications of the genetic association, and areas of future research are reviewed.
AcpA Is a Francisella Acid Phosphatase That Affects Intramacrophage Survival and Virulence
TLDR
Transmission electron microscopy showed that the acpA mutant was delayed in escape from macrophage phagosomes, as more than 75% of acPA mutant bacteria could still be found inside phagosites after 12 h of infection in THP-1 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages, whereas most of the wild-type bacteria had escaped from the phagosome by 6 h postinfection.
Macrophage Pro-Inflammatory Response to Francisella novicida Infection Is Regulated by SHIP
TLDR
It is proposed that the SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase is phosphorylated upon infection of primary murine macrophages with the genetically related F. novicida, and negatively regulates F.Novicida–induced inflammatory cytokine response by antagonizing the PI3K/Akt pathway and suppressing NFκB-mediated gene transcription.
HIV, Age, and the Severity of Hepatitis C Virus–Related Liver Disease
TLDR
Investigating whether persons with HIV infection develop hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease at younger ages than similar persons without HIV found that persons who have HCV with HIV have liver fibrosis stages similar to those who are nearly a decade older.
CMPK2 and BCL-G are associated with type 1 interferon–induced HIV restriction in humans
TLDR
Novel antiviral molecules that are linked with IFN-mediated restriction of HIV in humans are revealed, including CMPK2 and BCL-G, which are associated with HIV restriction in humans.
Presence of Human Hepegivirus-1 in a Cohort of People Who Inject Drugs
TLDR
The plasma virome of persons heavily exposed to bloodborne infections through long-term injection drug use is explored to explore whether next-generation metagenomic sequencing would reveal additional viruses.
Human immunodeficiency virus-related microbial translocation and progression of hepatitis C.
TLDR
Microbial translocation may be a fundamental mechanism through which HIV accelerates progression of chronic liver disease.
The transhepatic endotoxin gradient is present despite liver cirrhosis and is attenuated after transjugular portosystemic shunt (TIPS).
TLDR
The data indicate that the cirrhotic liver retains the capacity for clearance of bacterial endotoxin from the portal venous blood and that TIPS implantation attenuates this clearance, providing a possible link to the increased encephalopathy in TIPS patients.
Use of laser capture microdissection to map hepatitis C virus-positive hepatocytes in human liver.
TLDR
Quantitative single-cell RNA measurements can be used to estimate the abundance of HCV vRNA per infected human hepatocyte and are consistent with cell-cell propagation of infection in the absence of clustered IFITM3, which shows that expression of antiviral molecules is scattered among hepatocytes.
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