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A mitogenomic timescale for birds detects variable phylogenetic rates of molecular evolution and refutes the standard molecular clock.
TLDR
The first comprehensive analysis of mitogenomic data of 48 vertebrates, including 35 birds, is performed to derive a Bayesian timescale for avian evolution and to estimate rates of DNA evolution, finding no support for the hypothesis that the molecular clock in birds "ticks" according to a constant rate of substitution per unit of mass-specific metabolic energy rather than per unitOf time, as recently suggested.
Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of Charadriiformes genera: multigene evidence for the Cretaceous origin of at least 14 clades of shorebirds
TLDR
Bayesian methods were used to obtain a well-supported phylogeny of 90 recognized genera using 5 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences, and the tree comprised three major clades: Lari (gulls, auks and allies plus buttonquails) as sister to Scolopaci (sandpipers, jacanas and allies) and Charadrii (plovers, oystercatchers and allies), as in previous molecular studies.
Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling
TLDR
It is hypothesized that, as Antarctica became ice-encrusted, modern penguins expanded via the circumpolar current to oceanic islands within the Antarctic Convergence, and later to the southern continents, as global cooling has had a major impact on penguin evolution, as it has on vertebrates generally.
Rapid population decline in red knots: fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay
TLDR
Demographic modelling predicts imminent endangerment and an increased risk of extinction of the subspecies without urgent risk–averse management of the red knot population wintering in Tierra del Fuego, seriously threatening the viability of this subspecies.
Structural conservation and variation in the mitochondrial control region of fringilline finches (Fringilla spp.) and the greenfinch (Carduelis chloris).
TLDR
In pairwise comparisons among finch species, the central domain has unusually low transition/transversion ratios, which suggests that increased G + T content is a functional constraint, possibly for DNA primase efficiency.
Complete mitochondrial DNA geonome sequences of extinct birds: ratite phylogenetics and the vicariance biogeography hypothesis
TLDR
Most of the major ratite lineages fit the vicariance biogeography hypothesis, the exceptions being the ostrich and the kiwi, which require dispersal to explain their present distribution.
Disjunct distribution of highly diverged mitochondrial lineage clade and population subdivision in a marine bivalve with pelagic larval dispersal
TLDR
According to mitochondrial DNA sequence data, populations of this species can remain highly subdivided in spite of the potential for high gene flow, implying that their population and evolutionary dynamics can be independent.
GLOBAL MITOCHONDRIAL DNA PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF HOLARCTIC BREEDING DUNLINS (CALIDRIS ALPINA)
TLDR
Dunlins provide one of the clearest examples of the linkage between historical and contemporary components of mtDNA phylogeographic structuring in birds, which is being maintained by natal philopatry.
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