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Superoxide radicals as precursors of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide
It is demonstrated that the superoxide radical, at least under some conditions, is a precursor of H202 generated by submitochondrial particles (SMP), however, some observations revealed an alternative pathway of mitochondrial H20, formation apparently involving an oxygen species distinct from 0,. Expand
Vitamin E: non-antioxidant roles.
Vitamin E was originally considered a dietary factor of animal nutrition especially important for normal reproduction. The significance of vitamin E has been subsequently proven as a radical chainExpand
Vitamin E reduces the uptake of oxidized LDL by inhibiting CD36 scavenger receptor expression in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells.
It is shown here that the CD36 scavenger receptor (a specific receptor for oxLDL) is expressed in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and the beneficial effect of alpha-tocopherol against atherosclerosis can be explained, at least in part, by its effect of lowering the uptake of oxidized lipoproteins, with consequent reduction of foam cell formation. Expand
The European perspective on vitamin E: current knowledge and future research.
The scientists agreed that the functions of vitamin E were underestimated if one considered only its antioxidative properties, and future research on this essential vitamin should focus on what makes it essential for humans, why the body apparently utilizes alpha-tocopherol preferentially, and what functions other forms of Vitamin E have. Expand
d-alpha-tocopherol inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation occurs at physiological concentrations, correlates with protein kinase C inhibition, and is independent of its antioxidant
It is concluded that, in vascular smooth muscle cells, d-alpha-tocopherol acts specifically through a nonantioxidant mechanism and exerts a negative control on a signal transduction pathway regulating cell proliferation. Expand
The protein kinase C family.
A better understanding of the exact cellular function of the different protein kinase C isoenzymes requires the identification and characterization of their physiological substrates. Expand
Vitamin E: protective role of a Janus molecule
The new biochemical face of vitamin E was first described in 1991, with an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and protein kinase C activity, and its nonantioxidant role is well established, as confirmed by authoritative studies of signal transduction and gene regulation. Expand
Modulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor and protein kinase C by hydrogen peroxide and D-alpha-tocopherol in vascular smooth muscle cells.
The data show that hydrogen peroxide and D-alpha-tocopherol affect more than one element in the cell signal-transduction cascade, suggesting a non-antioxidant mechanism as the basis of its action. Expand
Inhibition of cell proliferation by alpha-tocopherol. Role of protein kinase C.
A model is discussed by which alpha-tocopherol inhibits cell proliferation by interacting with the cytosolic protein kinase C, thus preventing its membrane translocation and activation. Expand