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The genome of a songbird
This work shows that song behaviour engages gene regulatory networks in the zebra finch brain, altering the expression of long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs, transcription factors and their targets and shows evidence for rapid molecular evolution in the songbird lineage of genes that are regulated during song experience.
Tissue-specific expression and regulation of sexually dimorphic genes in mice.
Genetic analyses provided evidence of the global regulation of subsets of the sexually dimorphic genes, as the transcript levels of a large number of these genes were controlled by several expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) hotspots that exhibited tissue-specific control.
Forebrain lesions disrupt development but not maintenance of song in passerine birds.
Lesions in the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum of passerine birds disrupted song development in juvenile male zebra finches but did not affect maintenance of stable song patterns by adult birds.
Sexual dimorphism in vocal control areas of the songbird brain.
In canaries and zebra finches, three vocal control areas in the brain are strikingly larger in males than in females, believed to be the first report of such gross sexual dimorphism in a vertebrate brain.
Dosage compensation is less effective in birds than in mammals
Birds represent an unprecedented case in which genes on one sex chromosome are expressed on average at constitutively higher levels in one sex compared with the other, suggesting that some genomes can do without effective sex-specific sex-chromosome dosage compensation mechanisms.
Distribution and regulation of telencephalic aromatase expression in the zebra finch revealed with a specific antibody
The distribution of aromatase suggests a role for aromatization in the regulation of pre‐ and postsynaptic function in steroid sensitive areas of the songbird forebrain and reveals elaborate, spinous dendritic arbors, fine‐beaded axons, and punctate terminals of telencephalic neurons that may synthesize estrogen.
The organizational–activational hypothesis as the foundation for a unified theory of sexual differentiation of all mammalian tissues
  • A. Arnold
  • Biology, Medicine
    Hormones and Behavior
  • 1 May 2009
A unified theory of sexual differentiation that applies to all mammalian tissues is proposed that explains many sex differences in phenotype, in diverse tissues and at all levels of analysis from the molecular to the behavioral.
Reframing sexual differentiation of the brain
A more appropriate model is a parallel-interactive model that encompasses the roles of multiple molecular signals and pathways that differentiate males and females, including synergistic and compensatory interactions among pathways and an important role for the environment.
Strategies and methods for research on sex differences in brain and behavior.
Methods and procedures are described to assist scientists new to the field in designing and conducting experiments to investigate sex differences in research involving both laboratory animals and humans.
A Model System for Study of Sex Chromosome Effects on Sexually Dimorphic Neural and Behavioral Traits
The results show that sex chromosome genes contribute directly to the development of a sex difference in the brain.