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Dermal sensitization quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients.
TLDR
The principles of the recommended approach, detailed review of all the information used in the dermal sensitization QRA approach for fragrance ingredients and key conclusions for its use now and refinement in the future are presented. Expand
Exposure data for personal care products: hairspray, spray perfume, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and solid antiperspirant.
TLDR
This study provides current exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes. Expand
Exposure data for cosmetic products: lipstick, body lotion, and face cream.
TLDR
Current cosmetic exposure information for commonly used products is provided which will be useful for risk assessment purposes and the effect of product preference on use practices was investigated. Expand
Toxicological profile of diethyl phthalate: a vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients.
  • A. Api
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Food and chemical toxicology : an international…
  • 1 February 2001
TLDR
Comparison of estimated exposure from dermal applications of fragrances and cosmetic products with other accepted industrial and consumer exposures indicates no significant toxic liability for the use of DEP in fragrance and cosmetics products. Expand
Exposure data for cosmetic products: facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow.
TLDR
This study provides an estimate of current exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes. Expand
Implementation of the dermal sensitization Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients.
TLDR
The QRA approach, refined for fragrance ingredients identified as contact allergens, is formally adopted as the core strategy for primary prevention of dermal sensitization to these materials in consumer products. Expand
Non-animal methods to predict skin sensitization (I): the Cosmetics Europe database*
TLDR
This database is proposed as a point of reference for the evaluation and development of testing strategies, as done for example in the associated work of Kleinstreuer et al. and encouraged the community to use it to meet the challenge of conducting skin sensitization safety assessment without generating new animal data. Expand
Allergic contact dermatitis: epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, in vitro methods and regulatory aspects
TLDR
Research highlights included: advances in understanding of immune responses to contact sensitisers, the importance of autoxidation or enzyme-mediated oxidation for the activation of chemicals, the mechanisms through which hapten-protein conjugates are formed and the development of novel in vitro strategies for the identification of skin-sensitising chemicals. Expand
Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.
TLDR
A newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, is used to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) to demonstrate the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. Expand
Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) for safety assessment.
TLDR
The case of skin sensitization was taken as an example to understand how possible ITS can be constructed, optimized and validated, and will require embracing and developing new concepts such as adverse outcome pathways (AOP), advanced statistical learning algorithms and machine learning, mechanistic validation and "Good ITS Practices". Expand
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