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This study was carried out to determine the existence and the specificity of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) associated with vertical jump. Single vertical jump is an upward-oriented movement with identical initial and final postures. A consistent backward shift of the center of pressure (CP) clearly demonstrated the existence of APA. This shift(More)
The influence of fatigue on the stretch reflex evoked in ankle extensor muscles by hopping was investigated in six healthy men. The men hopped on a force platform, at spontaneous frequency and amplitude, until they were unable to maintain the initial frequency or amplitude of the jumps. This task was done with the knees flexing normally during ground(More)
The aim of this study was to examine the adaptability of the gait initiation process when confronted with stepping on (SO) to a new level. Eight young adults performed gait initiation at two different speed conditions in a level walking (LW) situation and in a SO situation aimed at walking on an elevated (16 cm) level surface. As in a previous study using a(More)
Tonic neck reflexes (TNR) are often assumed to be included in the building of voluntary motor programmes. The present study was designed to test the importance of TNR in the performance by healthy human adults of high level dynamic exercise. The subjects were placed in an experimental situation similar to the original one used by previous authors, but in a(More)
In this review, the authors describe the most recent functional imaging approaches used to explore and identify circuits within networks and model spatially and anatomically interconnected regions. After defining the concept of functional and effective connectivity, the authors describe various methods of identification and modeling of circuits within(More)
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