A. Whittingham

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Based on two successfully completed ECVAM validation studies for in vitro skin corrosion testing of chemicals, the National Co-ordinators of OECD Test Guideline Programme endorsed in 2002 two new test guidelines: TG 430 'Transcutaneous Electrical Resistance assay' and TG 431 'Human Skin Model Test'. To allow all suitable in vitro human reconstructed (dermal(More)
Nanotechnology is the new industrial revolution of the 21st Century as the various processes lead to radical improvements in medicine, manufacturing, energy production, land remediation, information technology and many other everyday products and applications. With this revolution however, there are undoubted concerns for health, safety and the environment(More)
The daily urine output may be of low volume during the first few days of life especially in low birthweight infants. To lessen urine loss we apply silicone oil to all the drainage surfaces of the tray and scrape retained droplets of urine towards the drainage pipe using the rubber blade of a small window cleaner. Evaporative losses are reduced by nursing(More)
A previous 'in house' validation study showed that the SMI assay can be used as an alternative to the in vivo Draize eye irritation test. The aim of this multi-centre study with four participating laboratories was to assess the transferability and inter-laboratory variability of the assay using 20 reference chemicals covering the whole irritancy range. The(More)
Irritation and other forms of local toxicity following contact with eyes is a potentially serious problem arising from occupational exposure to chemicals. Traditionally, evaluation of the irritant potential of novel chemicals has relied on the use of in vivo studies with rabbits. Concerns about the predictive potential of in vivo methods for human hazard(More)
The human epidermis model Epidermal Skin Test 1000 (EST-1000; CellSystems Biotechnologie Vertrieb GmbH) can be used in the assessment of skin corrosivity potential as indicated in the OECD Guideline for the testing of chemicals No 431. Skin corrosion refers to the production of irreversible tissue damage in the skin following the application of a test(More)
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