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Nerve fibers produce several non-electrical signals on excitation. Recent findings on such non-electrical signals are discussed, in the hope that some of them might give us clues to molecular events underlying the excitation process. At present this expectation is not fulfilled, but progress is being made which allows one to look optimistically at future(More)
1. The optical rotation signal of nerve associated with excitation was recorded from peripheral nerve taken from a walking leg of a spiny lobster and its properties were analysed. 2. The polarity of the optical rotation signal was reversed when the site of stimulation was changed with reference to the site of optical recording, so that the direction of(More)
The mechano-electrical transduction in the squid axon was studied. A certain volume of solution was intracellularly injected, subsequently redrawn, by a microsyringe, and the resultant expansion and shrinkage of the cell was employed as the mechanical stimulus. Upon stimulation, two types of responses appeared: a depolarizing response and a hyperpolarizing(More)
The optical signal, arising from a transient birefringence change associated with excitation, was recorded from a squid giant axon together with the membrane potential change, and the effect of removal of the axoplasm on the optical signal was examined. In an unperfused axon, repetitive stimulation at a frequency of about 100 Hz produced two kinds of(More)
When squid giant axons were intracellularly perfused for about 10 min with 100 mM K+ solutions containing Pronase or Protease Type VII at a concentration of 0.1-0.5 mg/ml, the action potential developed a long-lasting plateau. The plateau persisted after switching to an enzyme-free solution at standard pH (7.3 +/- 0.1) as the intracellular perfusate. The(More)
The effects of changing the intracellular pH on the action potential duration and other electrophysiological properties were studied in squid giant axons perfused intracellularly with TEA(tetraethylammonium)-containing solutions and under Ca-Na bi-ionic conditions. The duration of the action potential plateau, produced by TEA, was markedly decreased with(More)
The optical rotation signal of a single frog skeletal muscle fibre was recorded and its properties were examined. To reduce movement of the fibre associated with its excitation, fibre was immersed in Ringer solution made of 90-95% D2O, stretched, and lightly pressed from above with a cylindrical lens. After these procedures no mechanical movements were(More)
A long-lasting birefringence change (the delayed response) was found to be produced in a tetanically stimulated squid giant axon. The change was independent of the concurrent membrane potential change, summated on repetitive stimulation, and always had a sign representing a decrease in resting birefringence. The axons was placed between a polarizer and an(More)