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BACKGROUND Delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) carried by Na(+)-Ca(2+)-exchange current (I(NCX)) in response to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak can promote atrial fibrillation (AF). The mechanisms leading to delayed afterdepolarizations in AF patients have not been defined. METHODS AND RESULTS Protein levels (Western blot), membrane currents and(More)
Diastolic waves of Ca(2+) release have been shown to activate delayed afterdepolarizations as well as some cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increasing ryanodine receptor open probability alone or in the presence of beta-adrenergic stimulation produces diastolic Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). When(More)
1. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange currents were measured in calcium-overloaded voltage-clamped rat ventricular myocytes loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent indicator indo-1. Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content was measured from the integral of the caffeine-evoked current. In cells that had spontaneous SR(More)
In this article we review the role of the Ryanodine Receptor (RyR) in cardiac inotropy and arrhythmogenesis. Most of the calcium that activates cardiac contraction comes from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) from where it is released through the RyR. The amplitude of the systolic Ca transient depends steeply on the SR Ca content and it is therefore important(More)
1. The effects of modulating Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) in single cardiac myocytes were investigated using low concentrations of caffeine (< 500 microM) in reduced external Ca2+ (0.5 mM). Caffeine produced a transient potentiation of systolic [Ca2+]i (to 800 % of control) which decayed back to control levels. 2. Caffeine decreased the steady-state(More)
The role that Ca(2+) plays in ventricular excitation contraction coupling is well defined and much is known about the marked differences in the spatiotemporal properties of the systolic Ca(2+) transient between atrial and ventricular myocytes. However, to date there has been no systematic appraisal of the Ca(2+) homeostatic mechanisms employed by atrial(More)
BACKGROUND In ventricular myocytes, the majority of structures that couple excitation to the systolic rise of Ca(2+) are located at the transverse tubular (t-tubule) membrane. In the failing ventricle, disorganization of t-tubules disrupts excitation contraction coupling. The t-tubule membrane is virtually absent in the atria of small mammals resulting in(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate how sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content and systolic Ca(2+) are controlled when Ca(2+) entry into the cell is varied. Experiments were performed on voltage-clamped rat and ferret ventricular myocytes loaded with fluo-3 to measure intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Increasing external Ca(2+)(More)
1. The aim of these experiments was to compare the time course of changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) measured in the bulk cytoplasm with those estimated to occur near the sarcolemma. Sarcolemmal Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange current and [Ca2+]i were measured in single, voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes. 2. Spontaneous Ca2+ release from the(More)