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We report 18 patients who presented prior to age 20 years with epilepsy or fixed neurologic deficits. MRI showed signal abnormality extending from the cortex to the superolateral wall of the lateral ventricle. Histology showed cortical disorganization, neuronal cytomegaly, balloon cells, indistinct cortical gray matter-white matter junctions, and variable(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma, characterized by genetic instability, intratumoral histopathological variability, and unpredictable clinical behavior. We investigated global gene expression in surgical samples of brain tumors. Gene expression profiling revealed large differences between normal brain samples and(More)
Investigations of the basic pathological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) over the past two decades have been carried out primarily in rodents. Unfortunately, these studies have not translated into improved outcome in patients with TBI. To better model human TBI, a swine model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) was(More)
Both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to meningioma development by altering gene expression and protein function. To determine the relative contribution of each mechanism to meningioma development, we used an integrative approach measuring copy number and DNA methylation changes genomewide. We found that genetic alterations affected 1.9%, 7.4%,(More)
OBJECTIVE Identification of a particular cause of meningoencephalitis can be challenging owing to the myriad bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites that can produce overlapping clinical phenotypes, frequently delaying diagnosis and therapy. Metagenomic deep sequencing (MDS) approaches to infectious disease diagnostics are known for their ability to(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Glucose is a common component of anesthetic solutions used for spinal anesthesia. However, its possible contribution to recent injuries occurring with spinal anesthesia has not been adequately addressed. Accordingly, the present studies compare the functional and morphologic effects of intrathecally administered glucose with those(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tumor progression is often difficult to distinguish from nonneoplastic treatment response on the basis of MR images alone. This study correlates metabolite levels measured by preoperative MR spectroscopic (MRS) imaging with histologic findings of biopsies, obtained during image-guided resections of brain mass lesions, to clarify the(More)
BACKGROUND The California Encephalitis Project (CEP) is a program designed to determine causes of encephalitis. We sought to determine whether there are any distinguishing characteristics of patients with encephalitis who develop refractory status epilepticus from those who do not. METHODS Data from all patients in the CEP were retrospectively reviewed(More)
OBJECTIVE Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) have high matrix metalloproteinase-9, interleukin-6, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression, and polymorphic variations in inflammatory genes are associated with an increased risk of hemorrhage. In this study, we characterized the presence of inflammatory cells in AVM lesional tissue specimens. METHODS(More)
Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) can cause lethal hemorrhagic stroke and have no effective treatment. The cellular and molecular basis for this disease is largely unknown. We have previously shown that expression of constitutively-active Notch4 receptor in the endothelium elicits and maintains the hallmarks of BAVM in mice, thus establishing a(More)