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Cerebral edema contributes significantly to morbidity and death associated with many common neurological disorders. However, current treatment options are limited to hyperosmolar agents and surgical decompression, therapies introduced more than 70 years ago. Here we show that mice deficient in aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a glial membrane water channel, have much(More)
We describe the clinical course of a patient with multiple sclerosis in whom progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system, developed during treatment with interferon beta-1a and a selective adhesion-molecule blocker, natalizumab. The first PML lesion apparent on magnetic resonance imaging(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma, characterized by genetic instability, intratumoral histopathological variability, and unpredictable clinical behavior. We investigated global gene expression in surgical samples of brain tumors. Gene expression profiling revealed large differences between normal brain samples and(More)
Ependymoma occurs most frequently within the central nervous system of children and young adults. We determined relative chromosomal copy-number aberrations in 44 ependymomas using comparative genomic hybridization. The study included 24 intracranial and 20 spinal cord tumors from pediatric and adult patients. Frequent chromosomal aberrations in(More)
We report 18 patients who presented prior to age 20 years with epilepsy or fixed neurologic deficits. MRI showed signal abnormality extending from the cortex to the superolateral wall of the lateral ventricle. Histology showed cortical disorganization, neuronal cytomegaly, balloon cells, indistinct cortical gray matter-white matter junctions, and variable(More)
Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) can cause devastating stroke in young people and contribute to half of all hemorrhagic stroke in children. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of BAVMs is unknown. In this article we show that activation of Notch signaling in the endothelium during brain development causes BAVM in mice. We turned on constitutively(More)
The development of sarcoma subsequent to cranial irradiation is a rare but serious and potentially fatal event. We describe seven patients who had undergone cranial irradiation (range, 1600-6000 cGy) to treat their primary disease and who developed sarcomas within the irradiated field. The median time from radiation therapy to the development of a sarcoma(More)
Tuberculosis is among the oldest and most devastating infectious diseases worldwide. Nearly one third of the world's population has active or latent disease, resulting in 1.5 million deaths annually. Central nervous system involvement, while rare, is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Manifestations include tuberculoma and tuberculous meningitis, with(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tumor progression is often difficult to distinguish from nonneoplastic treatment response on the basis of MR images alone. This study correlates metabolite levels measured by preoperative MR spectroscopic (MRS) imaging with histologic findings of biopsies, obtained during image-guided resections of brain mass lesions, to clarify the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Histopathologic evaluation remains the reference standard for diagnosis of glioma and classification of histologic subtypes, but is challenged by subjective criteria, tissue sampling error, and lack of specific tumor markers. Anatomic imaging is essential for surgical planning of gliomas but is limited by its nonspecificity and its(More)