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Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a heterogeneous group of diseases that differ in biology and clinical behaviour. Until 1980, DCIS represented less than 1% of all breast cancer cases. With the increased utilization of mammography, DCIS now accounts for 15% to 25% of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index (VPNI) is a commonly(More)
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