A. V. Cameron

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BACKGROUND WHO and Health Action International (HAI) have developed a standardised method for surveying medicine prices, availability, affordability, and price components in low-income and middle-income countries. Here, we present a secondary analysis of medicine availability in 45 national and subnational surveys done using the WHO/HAI methodology. (More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the availability and affordability of medicines used to treat cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and glaucoma and to provide palliative cancer care in six low- and middle-income countries. METHODS A survey of the availability and price of 32 medicines was conducted in a representative sample of public and(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing attention is being paid to the affordability of medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs) where medicines are often highly priced in relation to income levels. The impoverishing effect of medicine purchases can be estimated by determining pre- and postpayment incomes, which are then compared to a poverty line. Here(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate potential differences in the availability of medicines for chronic and acute conditions in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS Data on the availability of 30 commonly-surveyed medicines - 15 for acute and 15 for chronic conditions - were obtained from facility-based surveys conducted in 40 developing countries. Results were(More)
OBJECTIVE To ascertain the reliability of applying the WHO Cardiovascular Risk Management Package by non-physician health-care workers (NPHWs) in typical primary health-care settings. METHODS Based on an a priori 80% agreement level between the NPHWs and the "expert" physicians (gold standard), 649 paired (matched) applications of the protocol were(More)
BACKGROUND The global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to rise. Successful treatment of CVD requires adequate pharmaceutical management. The aim was to examine the availability, pricing and affordability of cardiovascular medicines in developing countries using the standardized data collected according to the World Health Organization/Health(More)
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps(More)
PURPOSE In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a large proportion of people with epilepsy do not receive treatment. An analysis of the availability, price, and affordability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was conducted to evaluate whether these factors contribute to the treatment gap. METHODS Data for five AEDs (phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic(More)
OBJECTIVES In low- and middle-income countries, patients and reimbursement agencies that purchase medicines in the private sector pay more for originator brands when generic equivalents exist. We estimated the savings that could be obtained from a hypothetical switch in medicine consumption from originator brands to lowest-priced generic equivalents for a(More)
OBJECTIVE To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. METHODS The proposed methods--catastrophic and impoverishment methods--rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a country's income distribution and absolute level of income. The catastrophic method quantifies(More)