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Interleukin 17-producing T helper cells (T(H)-17 cells) are important in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but their route of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and their contribution relative to that of other effector T cells remain to be determined. Here we found that mice lacking CCR6, a chemokine receptor characteristic of T(H)-17(More)
We studied the immunoregulatory features of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and in vivo. MSCs inhibited T-cell receptor (TCR)-dependent and -independent proliferation but did not induce apoptosis on T cells. Such inhibition was paired with a decreased interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and was partially(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous subset of stromal stem cells that can be isolated from many adult tissues. They can differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage, such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes, as well as cells of other embryonic lineages. MSCs can interact with cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a subset of adult stem cells from bone marrow, to cure experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. METHODS The outcome of the injection of MSCs, in mice immunized with the peptide 139-151 of the proteolipid protein (PLP), was studied analyzing clinical and histological scores of treated(More)
Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that serves as a model for the human disease multiple sclerosis. We evaluated rolipram, a type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor, for its efficacy in preventing EAE in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. In a blinded experimental design, clinical signs of(More)
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) suppress T-cell and dendritic-cell function and represent a promising strategy for cell therapy of autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, no information is currently available on the effects of hMSCs on B cells, which may have a large impact on the clinical use of these cells. hMSCs isolated from the bone marrow and B cells(More)
Clonally expanded populations of B cells carrying somatic mutations of Ig variable (V) region genes have been detected in the CNS of subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting that a process of B cell affinity maturation with ensuing production of potentially pathogenic autoantibodies may occur inside the CNS. Here, we have characterized the B cell(More)
Callithrix jacchus is an outbred New World primate characterized by a naturally occurring bone marrow chimerism, restricted polymorphism at many MHC loci, and unusual susceptibility to viral pathogens, adenocarcinoma, colitis, and, following immunization with myelin antigens, a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system closely resembling human(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for human multiple sclerosis, is characterized by demyelination, inflammation and neurodegeneration of CNS in which free radicals play a role. Recently, the efficacy of murine mesenchimal stem cells (MSCs) as treatment of EAE induced in mice by the encephalitogenic peptide MOG(35-55) was(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a rare subset of stem cells residing in the bone marrow where they closely interact with hematopoietic stem cells and support their growth and differentiation. MSC can differentiate into multiple mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal lineages, providing a promising tool for tissue repair. In addition, MSC suppress many T cell, B(More)