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This paper presents a z-axis MEMS tuning fork rate gyroscope with multi-degree of freedom (DOF) sense modes designed to provide structural robustness to environmental drifts. This concept combines the temperature robustness of multiDOF sense modes with the common mode rejection capabilities of tuning fork architectures. The device consists of an antiphase(More)
We report vacuum packaging procedures for low-stress die attachment and versatile hermetic sealing of resonant MEMS. The developed in-house infrastructure allows for both high and moderate-level vacuum packaging addressing the requirements of various applications. Prototypes of 100 μm silicon-on-insulator Quadruple Mass Gyroscopes (QMGs) were packaged using(More)
We report, for the first time, experimental demonstration of a 3-D spherical shell resonator microelectromechanical systems gyroscope fabricated using wafer-scale glassblowing. The gyroscope utilizes a 1-mm-diameter 10-μm-thick spherical isotropic shell surrounded by eight cofabricated satellite spheres serving as actuation and detection electrodes. To(More)
DESIGN Cross-sectional studies in Russia (n = 502) and Macedonia (n = 205), with fluorochrome-stained sputum examined by 1) the new Lumin light emitting diode (LED) fluorescent attachment on a light microscope, and 2) conventional fluorescent microscope (CFM) available in each laboratory, and compared to 3) Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) restaining/reading of the same(More)
Two operational-and-tactical factors had the main influence on organization of the surgical care rendered to the casualties on the Northern Caucasus: the fulminant and maneuverable nature of combat operations at the beginning of both armed conflicts and rather small territory of war theatre. The main special features of organization of surgical care to the(More)
The structure of bacterial suspensions of Escherichia coli M-17 at the counting concentrations of the cells 10(7), 10(8), 10(9) i/ml and in the temperature range of (18-50) degrees C has been investigated by means of orientational conductometric, electron microscopic and UV-spectroscopic methods. On the basis of experimental relationships of the anisotropy(More)
This paper analyzes energy dissipation mechanisms in vacuum-operated in-phase and anti-phase actuated micromachined z-axis vibratory gyroscopes. The type of actuation is experimentally identified as the key factor to energy dissipation. For in-phase devices, dissipation through the die substrate is the dominant energy loss mechanism. This damping mechanism(More)