A. Tavener

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In sheep, administration of a combination of zolazepam and tiletamine hydrochloride resulted in a dose dependent reduction in the duration of epileptic activity induced by an electric stun applied to the head. The compound also lengthened the normal period of reflex suppression that occurs after a stun. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists(More)
Parallel electrocorticograms (ECoG) and electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded during stun-recovery and stun-slaughter of eight calves 4-6 weeks old. Epochs of 8·2 s duration, derived from the ECoG and EEG signals pre-stun, during recovery and during exsanguination, were compared for differences in power content and frequency distribution using Fast(More)
Cerebral venous and femoral arterial blood samples were collected from 21 young calves either during electrical stunning and recovery or electrical stunning and slaughter by carotid severance or slaughter without stunning. The blood samples were analysed for PO2, PCO2, pH, glucose and lactate. The results were compared with simultaneous recordings of(More)
The total carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand test is described, and experimental data demonstrating its stoichiometry, precision, and accuracy are presented. The test is more reproducible and faster than the current 5-day biochemical oxygen demand test procedure, and if a respirometer is used, the effects of toxic chemicals, pH changes, and nutrient(More)
Passing an electric current (50 Hz, 400 V open circuit, current limited to 1.5 A) from two electrodes acting as a common single electrode set applied on each side of the dorsal surface of the neck (cervical vertebrae C2 to C5 region) to another placed on the brisket of young bulls causes fibrillation of the cardiac muscle, does not induce epileptiform(More)
Twelve adult cattle were electrically stunned head-only (400 V, 2.5 A, 50 Hz) behind the ears for four seconds. Within ten seconds of stun initiation, the carotid arteries, jugular veins, trachea and oesophagus were severed. Twenty seconds after the stun initiation, ten animals received an electro-immobilization current (80 V peak, 14.3 Hz, 5 ms square(More)
Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made on 34 calves (two days to six weeks old, 30-50 kg) during the slaughter process. The calves, supported in a V-shaped box or polypropylene net, were either head-only electrically stunned (50 Hz, 1.0 A) across the head and allowed to recover, head-only stunned followed by throat cutting or head-only stunned(More)
Eighteen of 23 red deer (Cervus elaphus) at a deer slaughtering premises were successfully stunned with an apparatus modified from that normally used to stun sheep. The five unsuccessful electrical stuns were associated with poor head restraint and poor head contact by the electrodes. The median stunning current was 0.9 A, and in the majority of cases the(More)