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The cellular events that precede myelination in the peripheral nervous system require rapid and dynamic morphological changes in the Schwann cell. These events are thought to be mainly controlled by axonal signals. But how signals on the axons are coordinately organized and transduced to promote proliferation, migration, radial sorting, and myelination is(More)
Small GTPases of the Rho family play key roles in the formation of neuronal axons and dendrites by transducing signals from guidance cues, such as neurotrophins, to the actin cytoskeleton. However, there is little insight into the mechanism by which neurotrophins regulate Rho GTPases. Here, we show the crucial role of the ubiquitous Rac1-specific guanine(More)
In development of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells proliferate, migrate, and ultimately differentiate to form myelin sheath. In all of the myelination stages, Schwann cells continuously undergo morphological changes; however, little is known about their underlying molecular mechanisms. We previously cloned the dock7 gene encoding the atypical(More)
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) in order to form myelin, which is required for the rapid propagation of action potentials in the vertebrate nervous system. In spite of the considerable clinical importance of myelination, little is known about the basic molecular mechanisms underlying OL differentiation and(More)
Purinergic P2X receptors are ion-conducting channels composed of three subunits, each having two transmembrane domains and intracellular amino (N) and carboxyl (C) termini. Although alternative splicing extensively modifies the C-terminal sequences of P2X subunits, the direct influence of such post-transcriptional modifications on receptor architecture and(More)
P2X purinergic receptors (P2XRs) differ among themselves with respect to their ligand preferences and channel kinetics during activation, desensitization, and recovery. However, the contributions of distinct receptor subdomains to the subtype-specific behavior have been incompletely characterized. Here we show that homomeric receptors having the(More)
The neurohypophyseal peptide [Arg(8)]-vasopressin (AVP) exerts major physiological actions through three distinct receptor isoforms designated V1a, V1b, and V2. Among these three subtypes, the vasopressin V1b receptor is specifically expressed in pituitary corticotrophs and mediates the stimulatory effect of vasopressin on ACTH release. To investigate the(More)
The arginine vasopressin (AVP) system plays an important role in social behavior. Autism, with its hallmark disturbances in social behavior, has been associated with the V1a receptor (V1aR) gene. Furthermore, impairments of social function are often observed in symptoms of schizophrenia. Subchronic phencyclidine (PCP) produces behaviors relating to certain(More)
Water homeostasis is a critical challenge to survival for land mammals. Mice display increased locomotor activity when dehydrated, a behavior that improves the likelihood of locating new sources of water and simultaneously places additional demands on compromised hydration levels. The neurophysiology underlying this well known behavior has not been(More)
The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is essential for a wide range of physiological functions, including water reabsorption, cardiovascular homeostasis, hormone secretion, and social behavior. These and other actions of AVP are mediated by at least three distinct receptor subtypes: V1a, V1b, and V2. Although the antidiuretic action of AVP(More)