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Immune changes during space flights in excess of two weeks have been almost exclusively studied by Russian investigators. Most of these studies have compared postflight values with those obtained before flight. In a very few cases, analyses have also been attempted during flight or with samples collected during flight. Studies of cosmonauts during(More)
Over the past two decades, it has become apparent that changes in immune parameters occur in cosmonauts and astronauts after spaceflight. Therefore, interest has been generated in the use of animal surrogates to better understand the nature and extent of these changes, the mechanism of these changes, and to allow the possible development of countermeasures.(More)
Studies of peripheral blood lymphocytes from astronauts indicate that microgravity depresses T-cell responsiveness. However, this effect has not been examined in cells of peripheral lymphatic tissue, where most lymphocytes are located. In this study, inguinal lymph node lymphocytes from rats flown on the COSMOS 2044 mission were tested for proliferation and(More)
To investigate the effect of spaceflight on cell mediated immunity we tested delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in 5 cosmonauts on three missions in the orbital space station MIR. DTH was determined by the intradermal application of seven antigens and a control using the standardized Multitest Mérieux. This multiple prick puncture test was applied prior(More)
During a recent flight of a Russian satellite (Cosmos #2229), initial experiments examining the effects of space flight on immunologic responses of rhesus monkeys were performed to gain insight into the effect of space flight on resistance to infection. Experiments were performed on tissue samples taken from the monkeys before and immediately after flight.(More)
Experiments were carried out on cells from rats that had been flown on Soviet Biosputnik Cosmos 1887 to explore the effects of spaceflight on immune responses. Rat bone marrow cells were examined for their response to colony stimulating factor-M. Rat spleen and bone marrow cells were stained with antibodies directed against cell surface antigenic markers.(More)
Experiments were carried out aboard COSMOS 2044 to determine the effects of spaceflight on immunologically important cell function and distribution. Control groups included vivarium, synchronous, and antiorthostatically suspended rats. In one experiment, rat bone marrow cells were examined in Moscow, for their response to recombinant murine(More)
The effects of spaceflight on immune cell function were determined in rats flown on COSMOS 2044. Control groups included vivarium, synchronous, and antiorthostatically suspended rats. The ability of natural killer cells to lyse two different target cell lines was determined. Spleen and bone marrow cells obtained from flight rats showed significantly(More)
During the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 mission, rats were dissected in space and biosamples were returned to Earth for analysis. Immunologic studies addressed the kinetics of T lymphocyte proliferative responses, cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, and cytokine production. Experiments were performed by using spleen and bone marrow of rats dissected(More)