Learn More
The development ofa 2 l-item self-report inventory for measuring the severity of anxiety in psychiatric populations is described. The initial item pool of 86 items was drawn from three preexisting scales: the Anxiety Checklist, the Physician's Desk Reference Checklist, and the Situational Anxiety Checklist. A series of analyses was used to reduce the item(More)
The amended (revised) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-IA; Beck & Steer, 1993b) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) were self-administered to 140 psychiatric outpatients with various psychiatric disorders. The coefficient alphas of the BDI-IA and the BDI-II were, respectively, .89 and .91. The mean rating for Sadness on(More)
This article reviews the cognitive therapy of depression. The psychotherapy based on this theory consists of behavioral and verbal techniques to change cognitions, beliefs, and errors in logic in the patient's thinking. A few of the various techniques are described and a case example is provided. Finally, the outcome studies testing the efficacy of this(More)
The clinical measurements of insight have focused primarily on patients' unawareness of their having a mental disorder and of their need for treatment ([Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 89 (1994) 62; Am. J. Psychiatry 150 (1993) 873]; etc.). A complementary approach focuses on some of the cognitive processes involved in patients' re-evaluation of their anomalous(More)
Studied internal consistencies of the 1961 and 1978 versions of the Beck Depression Inventory in two different samples of psychiatric patients. The alpha coefficient for the 598 inpatients and outpatients who were administered the 1961 version was .88, and the alpha coefficient for the 248 outpatients who were self-administered the 1978 version was .86. The(More)
In the 40 years since Aaron Beck first proposed his cognitive model of depression, the elements of this model--biased attention, biased processing, biased thoughts and rumination, biased memory, and dysfunctional attitudes and schemas--have been consistently linked with the onset and maintenance of depression. Although numerous studies have examined the(More)
A three-stage schema-based information processing model of anxiety is described that involves: (a) the initial registration of a threat stimulus; (b) the activation of a primal threat mode; and (c) the secondary activation of more elaborative and reflective modes of thinking. The defining elements of automatic and strategic processing are discussed with the(More)