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Twin arginine transport (Tat) systems transport folded proteins using proton-motive force as sole energy source. The thylakoid Tat system comprises three membrane components. A complex composed of cpTatC and Hcf106 is the twin arginine signal peptide receptor. Signal peptide binding triggers assembly of Tha4 for the translocation step. Tha4 is thought to(More)
Starch degradation in chloroplasts requires β-amylase (BAM) activity, which is encoded by a multigene family. Of nine Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) BAM genes, six encode plastidic enzymes, but only four of these are catalytically active. In vegetative plants, BAM1 acts during the day in guard cells, whereas BAM3 is the dominant activity in mesophyll(More)
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