Learn More
A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
X-ray fluorescence spectra obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting Mercury indicate that the planet's surface differs in composition from those of other terrestrial planets. Relatively high Mg/Si and low Al/Si and Ca/Si ratios rule out a lunarlike feldspar-rich crust. The sulfur abundance is at least 10 times higher than that of the silicate portion(More)
Microwave and mid-infrared observations reveal that Mercury's surface contains less FeO + TiO2 and at least as much feldspar as the lunar highlands. The results are compatible with the high albedo (brightness) of Mercury's surface at visible wavelengths in suggesting a rock and soil composition that is devoid of basalt, the primary differentiate of(More)
Mercury is surrounded by a tenuous exosphere that is supplied primarily by the planet's surface materials and is known to contain sodium, potassium, and calcium. Observations by the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer during MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby revealed the presence of neutral magnesium in the tail (anti-sunward) region of(More)
Mercury's regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered by a set of space weathering processes. Before we can interpret crustal composition, it is necessary to understand the nature of these surface alterations. The processes that space weather the surface are the same as those that form Mercury's exosphere (micrometeoroid flux and solar wind(More)
We describe and compare two methods of short-exposure, high-deÿnition ground-based imaging of the planet Mercury. Two teams have recorded images of Mercury on diierent dates, from diierent locations, and with diierent observational and data reduction techniques. Both groups have achieved spatial resolutions of ¡ 250 km, and the same albedo features and(More)
During MESSENGER's first flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer made simultaneous mid-ultraviolet to near-infrared (wavelengths of 200 to 1300 nanometers) reflectance observations of the surface. An ultraviolet absorption (<280 nanometers) suggests that the ferrous oxide (Fe2+) content of silicates in average surface(More)
The MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer measured the average surface abundances of the radioactive elements potassium (K, 1150 ± 220 parts per million), thorium (Th, 220 ± 60 parts per billion), and uranium (U, 90 ± 20 parts per billion) in Mercury's northern hemisphere. The abundance of the moderately volatile element K, relative to Th and U, is inconsistent(More)
Celera Genomics has constructed an automated computer system to support ultra high-throughput SNP genotyping that satisfies the increasing demand that disease association studies are placing on current genotyping facilities. This system consists of the seamless integration of target SNP selection, automated oligo design, in silico assay quality validation,(More)
The MESSENGER spacecraft's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) obtained more than 1.6 million reflectance spectra of Mercury's surface from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths during the first year of orbital operations. A global analysis of spectra in the wavelength range 300–1450 nm shows little regional variation in(More)