A. Soren Leonard

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Calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and glutamate receptors are integrally involved in forms of synaptic plasticity that may underlie learning and memory. In the simplest model for long-term potentiation, CaMKII is activated by Ca2+ influx through NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors and then potentiates synaptic efficacy by(More)
Rapid glutamatergic synaptic transmission is mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors and depends on their precise localization at postsynaptic membranes opposing the presynaptic neurotransmitter release sites. Postsynaptic localization of N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors may be mediated by the synapse-associated proteins (SAPs) SAP90,(More)
Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors plays a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity during brain development as well as in mature brain. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family are also essential for various forms of synaptic plasticity and regulate the activity of different(More)
Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 1a subunit is expressed in synapses of central neurons where it contributes to synaptic plasticity. However, whether these channels can conduct Ca(2+) and thereby raise the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, [Ca(2+)](c), and possibly alter neuronal physiology has been uncertain. We found that extracellular acidosis opened ASIC1a(More)
The acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is abundantly expressed in the amygdala complex and other brain regions associated with fear. Studies of mice with a disrupted ASIC1 gene suggested that ASIC1a may contribute to learned fear. To test this hypothesis, we generated mice overexpressing human ASIC1a by using the pan-neuronal synapsin 1 promoter.(More)
The molecular basis of long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting change in synaptic transmission, is of fundamental interest because of its implication in learning. Usually LTP depends on Ca2+ influx through postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors and subsequent activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII).(More)
The ability to detect salt is critical for the survival of terrestrial animals. Based on amiloride-dependent inhibition, the receptors that detect salt have been postulated to be DEG/ENaC channels. We found the Drosophila DEG/ENaC genes Pickpocket11 (ppk11) and Pickpocket19 (ppk19) expressed in the larval taste-sensing terminal organ and in adults on the(More)
SAP97, a PDZ-containing protein, is reported to concentrate in axon terminals, where its function remains unknown. Using highly specific new antibodies, we show that SAP97 in rat cerebral cortex is associated with heteromeric AMPA receptors via a selective biochemical interaction between SAP97 and the GluR1 subunit. Using light and electron microscopic(More)
Ca(2+) influx through the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor leads to activation and postsynaptic accumulation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and ultimately to long term potentiation, which is thought to be the physiological correlate of learning and memory. The NMDA receptor also serves as a CaMKII docking site(More)
Epilepsy, a disorder of recurrent seizures, is a common and frequently devastating neurological condition. Available therapy is only symptomatic and often ineffective. Understanding epileptogenesis, the process by which a normal brain becomes epileptic, may help identify molecular targets for drugs that could prevent epilepsy. A number of acquired and(More)