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A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method was used to detect Legionella pneumophila in biofilms in potable water containing a complex microbial consortium. The unique 3-hydroxy and 2,3-dihydroxy fatty acids of the L. pneumophila lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were detected in both the planktonic phase of the continuous culture model and in the biofilms(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are effector molecules of the innate immune system. We recently showed that the human antimicrobial peptides alpha-defensin and LL-37 bind to glycosaminoglycans (heparin and dermatan sulphate). Here we demonstrate the obverse, i.e. structural motifs associated with heparin affinity (cationicity, amphipaticity, and consensus regions)(More)
Alginate is a viscous extracellular polymer produced by mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that cause chronic pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Alginate is polymerized from GDP-mannuronate to a linear polymer of beta-1-4-linked residues of D-mannuronate and its C5-epimer, L-guluronate. We previously identified a gene called algG(More)
OBJECTIVES The antibacterial activity of antimicrobial peptides is influenced by various factors such as salt content, pH and the presence of proteins. In this study, we explored the antibacterial action of the human cathelicidin LL-37 in physiologically relevant conditions, i.e. various human wound fluids, human plasma fractions and serum. METHODS Radial(More)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Environmental and genetic factors, as well as microbial products from yeasts and bacteria, play a role in triggering the disease. A cohort of 619 adult patients with AD was screened for severity of AD, sensitization to Malassezia sympodialis, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins(More)
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Philadelphia 1) exhibits peculiar chemical features which may account for its importance as a bacterial virulence factor. The O-chain of this LPS constitutes a homopolymer of an unusual sugar, 5-acetamidino-7-acetamido-8-O-acetyl-3,5,7,(More)
The lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) content in airborne dust samples from three different poultry slaughterhouses was determined with both the chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of lipopolysaccharide-derived 3-hydroxy fatty acids. Gram-negative cell walls were also measured by using two-dimensional(More)
BACKGROUND Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The pathogenesis of AD involves skin barrier defects and dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity. Some environmental factors such as stress, infections, and allergens are associated with aggravation of AD. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between skin(More)
D-Alanine and diaminopimelic acid originating from bacterial peptidoglycans and hydroxy fatty acids from lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) were analysed by gas chromatography using a chiral column (Chirasil-Val as stationary phase) and selected-ion monitoring detection with negative-ion chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. The amino acids were analysed as(More)
OBJECTIVES Antimicrobial peptides are important effectors of innate immunity. Bacteria display multiple defence mechanisms against these peptides. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa releases potent proteinases that inactivate the human cathelicidin LL-37. Hence, in conditions characterized by persistent bacterial colonization, such as in P.(More)