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While the delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP) behavioral paradigm has often been used by neuroscientists to assess working memory in rats, its measure of working memory is compromised by floor and ceiling effects. Specifically, these floor and ceiling effects undermine the ability to detect a significant interaction in a two-factor repeated-measures(More)
Operant delayed non-matching-to-position (delayed non-matching-to-position) tasks have been widely used as tests of working memory in rats, but have suffered some loss in sensitivity to differentiating selective mnemonic from non-mnemonic deficits due to floor and ceiling effects. To circumvent this problem, a novel delayed non-matching-to-position was(More)
Energy and energy conservation are powerful concepts for understanding biological systems, but helping students use these concepts as tools for analysis of these complex systems poses special challenges. This paper focuses on three issues that arise in teaching about energy in biological systems: 1. Understanding the purpose of the concept of energy.(More)
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