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Carrier tracking loops used in satellite navigation receiver are discrete-time closed loop systems that are mostly designed from their continuous time counterparts. In this paper, we analyze the stability of second order carrier tracking loop, assisted and unassisted versions, when designed from continuous time domain. It is well-known that increasing the(More)
Interactive virtual reality systems provide safe and cost-effective training environment to improve the technical skills and competence of surgeons. The trainees can have as many practice sessions, without need to the trainer all the time, before even start carrying out the procedure on any real patient. In this paper, we present an affordable interactive(More)
AIM To compare the effect of different treatment regimens (oral hypoglycemic agents [OHGs], insulin therapy, and combination of both) on glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Saudi. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Patients with T2DM, but no serious diabetic complications, were randomly recruited from(More)
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