A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links to form an arbitrary topology without the use of existing infrastructure. Due to the nature of Unreliable Wireless medium Data Transfer is a major Problem in MANET and it lacks Security and Reliability of Data. Cryptographic techniques are commonly used… (More)
—Multicasting is effective when its group members are sparse and the speed is low. On the other hand, broadcasting is effective when the group members dense and the speed are high. Since mobile ad hoc networks are highly dynamic in nature, either of the above two strategies can be adopted at different scenarios. In this paper, we propose an ant agent based… (More)
Road Accidents are currently ranked as the eighth largest cause of death in the world. This research aims to evaluate the accident risk on the road. This research is working hard to raise awareness of the dangers to drivers, pedestrians, and to provide leadership, expertise about the road. The development of the risk rating system, which ranked risk of the… (More)
Problem statement: A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is one of the challenging environments for multicast. Since the associated overhead is more, the existing studies illustrate that tree-based and mesh-based on-demand protocols are not the best choice. The costs of the tree under multiple constraints are reduced by the several algorithms which are based on… (More)
that EZSMCA outperforms existing LEACH and HEED protocols in terms of network lifetime and energy consumptions.