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Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that selectively affects optic nerves and spinal cord. It is considered a severe variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), and frequently is misdiagnosed as MS, but prognosis and optimal treatments differ. A serum immunoglobulin G autoantibody (NMO-IgG) serves as a specific marker for NMO. Here(More)
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a cAMP-regulated epithelial Cl- channel that, when defective, causes cystic fibrosis. Screening of a collection of 100,000 diverse small molecules revealed four novel chemical classes of CFTR inhibitors with Ki < 10 microM, one of which (glycine hydrazides) had many active structural(More)
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to quantify the translational diffusion of microinjected FITC-dextrans and Ficolls in the cytoplasm and nucleus of MDCK epithelial cells and Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. Absolute diffusion coefficients (D) were measured using a microsecond-resolution FRAP apparatus and solution standards. In aqueous media(More)
Chloride concentration ([Cl-]) was measured in defined organellar compartments using fluorescently labeled transferrin, alpha2-macroglobulin, and cholera toxin B-subunit conjugated with Cl--sensitive and -insensitive dyes. In pulse-chase experiments, [Cl-] in Tf-labeled early/recycling endosomes in J774 cells was 20 mM just after internalization, increasing(More)
The airway surface liquid (ASL) is the thin layer of fluid coating the luminal surface of airway epithelial cells at an air interface. Its composition and osmolality are thought to be important in normal airway physiology and in airway diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. The determinants of ASL osmolality include epithelial cell solute and water(More)
The mammalian peripheral lung contains at least three aquaporin (AQP) water channels: AQP1 in microvascular endothelia, AQP4 in airway epithelia, and AQP5 in alveolar epithelia. In this study, we determined the role of AQP4 in airspace-to-capillary water transport by comparing water permeability in wild-type mice and transgenic null mice lacking AQP1, AQP4,(More)
The active absorption of fluid from the airspaces of the lung is important for the resolution of clinical pulmonary edema. Although ENaC channels provide a major route for Na(+) absorption, the route of Cl(-) transport has been unclear. We applied a series of complementary approaches to define the role of Cl(-) transport in fluid clearance in the distal(More)
Potassium (K(+)) ions released into brain extracellular space (ECS) during neuroexcitation are efficiently taken up by astrocytes. Deletion of astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in mice alters neuroexcitation by reducing ECS [K(+)] accumulation and slowing K(+) reuptake. These effects could involve AQP4-dependent: (a) K(+) permeability, (b) resting(More)
Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed in the eye at sites of aqueous fluid production and outflow: AQP1 and AQP4 in nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, and AQP1 in trabecular meshwork endothelium. Novel methods were developed to compare aqueous fluid dynamics in wild-type mice versus mice lacking AQP1 and/or AQP4. Aqueous fluid production was measured(More)
It is thought that the high protein density in the mitochondrial matrix results in severely restricted solute diffusion and metabolite channeling from one enzyme to another without free aqueous-phase diffusion. To test this hypothesis, we measured the diffusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in the mitochondrial matrix of fibroblast, liver,(More)