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The steady-state basal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are determined by their interaction in a feedback loop. A computer-solved model has been used to predict the homeostatic concentrations which arise from varying degrees beta-cell deficiency and insulin resistance. Comparison of a patient's fasting values with the model's predictions allows a(More)
Continuous infusion of glucose with model assessment (CIGMA) is a new method of assessing glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and beta-cell function. It consists of a continuous glucose infusion 5 mg glucose/kg ideal body weight per min for 60 min, with measurement of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. These are similar to postprandial levels,(More)
A mathematical model of normal glucose/insulin homoeostasis has been based on the known, experimentally determined responses of the liver and periphery to different glucose/insulin concentrations. Different defects of glucose resistance and insulin resistance have been applied to the model to investigate the degree to which these abnormalities could(More)
BACKGROUND Anaemia occurs early in the course of diabetes-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is little evidence about the prevalence of anaemia in people with diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia, by stage of CKD, in the general diabetic population. METHODS Haemoglobin (Hb) was measured on all glycated(More)
To characterize the abnormal B-cell response to glucose in type II diabetes, five diet-treated diabetic and six weight-matched non-diabetic subjects were studied using the hyperglycemic clamp technique on three separate days at glycemic levels of 7.5, 10 and 15 mmol/L for 150 minutes with assessment of plasma insulin and C-peptide responses. To reduce(More)
The plasma insulin or C-peptide response to a 90-min constant glucose infusion 5 mg.kg ideal body weight-1.min-1 provides Beta-cell assessment comparable to more intensive methods. In 14 diet-treated Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects and 12 non-diabetic subjects, plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations gave near linear plots against(More)
Continuous infusion of glucose with model assessment was used to measure glucose tolerance, beta-cell function, and insulin sensitivity in 154 first-degree relatives of 55 patients with type-2 diabetes. The plasma glucose achieved at 1 h was normally distributed in normal control subjects, but 31 (20%) of relatives of type-2 diabetics had values above the(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS IGFs and their binding proteins are increasingly recognised as important in understanding the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Low IGFBP-1, particularly coupled with low IGF-I, is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In relation to structural and regulatory parallels between IGFBP-1 and - 2 we have now examined the(More)
Islet B-cell function and insulin sensitivity were estimated with the aid of a mathematical model from repeated fasting plasma glucose and insulin measurements over a 6 year period in 131 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who could be managed satisfactorily on dietary therapy alone. They presented between the ages of 40 and 69 years, and were studied(More)
Insulin and C-peptide secretion rates have been measured and compared in 12 nondiabetic subjects to characterize the glucose stimulus-response of B cell secretion in man. On three different days, glucose concentrations were clamped for 150 minutes at 7.5, 10, and 15 mmol/L, respectively. Plasma samples taken during the clamps were assayed for C-peptide and(More)