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Small molecules present during brain tissue homogenization are known to be entrapped within subsequently isolated synaptosomes. We have revisited this technique in view of its systematic utilization to incorporate into nerve endings impermeant probes of large size. Rat neocortical synaptosomes were prepared in the absence or in the presence of each of the(More)
Whether exocytosis evoked by a given releasing stimulus from different neuronal families or by different stimuli from one neuronal population occurs through identical mechanisms is unknown. We studied the release of [3H]noradrenaline, [3H]acetylcholine and [3H]dopamine induced by different stimuli from superfused rat brain synaptosomes pretreated with(More)
Several genes predisposing to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with or without epilepsy have been identified, many of which are implicated in synaptic function. Here we report a Q555X mutation in synapsin 1 (SYN1), an X-linked gene encoding for a neuron-specific phosphoprotein implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. This(More)
GABA can evoke norepinephrine (NE) release by activating GABAA receptors or GABA transporters on noradrenergic terminals. The heterocarrier-induced release occurs by conventional exocytosis. We here characterized the mechanism of the GABAA receptor-induced release and investigated what type(s) of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels (VSCCs) are involved in the(More)
Synapsins are synaptic vesicle (SV)-associated phosphoproteins involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. Synapsins reversibly tether SVs to the cytoskeleton and their phosphorylation by serine/threonine kinases increases SV availability for exocytosis by impairing their association with SVs and/or actin. We recently showed that synapsin I,(More)
As previously reported GABAB receptors are heterogeneous. Three pharmacologically distinct receptor subtypes mediating inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate or somatostatin release, respectively, exist on axon terminals of rat cerebral cortex. We investigated the novel GABAB receptor antagonist,(More)
Release-regulating heterocarriers exist on brain nerve endings. We have investigated in this study the mechanisms involved in the neurotransmitter release evoked by GABA heterocarrier activation. GABA increased the basal release of [3H]acetylcholine and [3H]noradrenaline from rat hippocampal synaptosomes and of [3H]dopamine from striatal synaptosomes. These(More)
Idiopathic epilepsies (IEs) are a group of disorders characterized by recurrent seizures in the absence of detectable brain lesions or metabolic abnormalities. IEs include common disorders with a complex mode of inheritance and rare Mendelian traits suggesting the occurrence of several alleles with variable penetrance. We previously described a large family(More)
Synapsins are abundant SV (synaptic vesicle)-associated phosphoproteins that regulate synapse formation and function. The highly conserved C-terminal domain E was shown to contribute to several synapsin functions, ranging from formation of the SV reserve pool to regulation of the kinetics of exocytosis and SV cycling, although the molecular mechanisms(More)
Synapsins (Syns) are synaptic vesicle (SV) phosphoproteins that play a role in neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity by acting at multiple steps of exocytosis. Mutation of SYN genes results in an epileptic phenotype in mouse and man suggesting a role of Syns in the control of network excitability. We have studied the effects of the genetic(More)