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In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and(More)
This study investigates the influence of alkali (Na, K), alkaline earth (Ca, Mg) and transition (Fe) metal nitrates on CO2 gasification reactivity of pistachio nut shell (PNS) char. The preliminary gasification experiments were performed in thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and the results showed considerable improvement in carbon conversion;(More)
TiO2 thin film photocatalyst was successfully synthesized and immobilized on glass reactor tube using sol-gel method. The synthesized TiO2 coating was transparent, which enabled the penetration of ultra-violet (UV) light to the catalyst surface. Two photocatalytic reactors with different operating modes were tested: (a) tubular photocatalytic reactor with(More)
Decomposition of oil palm fruit press fiber (FPF) to various liquid products in subcritical water was investigated using a high-pressure autoclave reactor with and without the presence of catalyst. When the reaction was carried in the absence of catalyst, the conversion of solid to liquid products increased from 54.9% at 483 K to 75.8% at 603 K.(More)
Hydrogen may be considered a potential fuel for the future since it is carbon-free and oxidized to water as a combustion product. Bioconversion of synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrogen was demonstrated in continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTBR) utilizing acetate as a carbon source. An anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum catalyzed(More)
Graphene is one of the most promising materials in the field of nanotechnology and has attracted a tremendous amount of research interest in recent years. Due to its large specific surface area, high thermal conductivity, and superior electron mobility, graphene is regarded as an extremely attractive component for the preparation of composite materials. At(More)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides due to its extraordinary surface, electronic and catalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and massive recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic and photovoltaic efficiency. Therefore, increasing research attention is now being(More)
Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into hydrocarbon fuels such as methane is an attractive strategy for simultaneously harvesting solar energy and capturing this major greenhouse gas. Incessant research interest has been devoted to preparing graphene-based semiconductor nanocomposites as photocatalysts for a variety of applications. In this(More)
In this study, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) have been successfully produced from transesterification reaction between triglycerides and methyl acetate, instead of alcohol. In this non-catalytic supercritical methyl acetate (SCMA) technology, triacetin which is a valuable biodiesel additive is produced as side product rather than glycerol, which has lower(More)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides because of its extraordinary surface, electronic, and photocatalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and the considerable recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic efficiency. Therefore, research attention is being increasingly(More)