A. R. Mohamed

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In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and(More)
In this study, the interactive effects of feed flow rate (QF) and up-flow velocity (V up) on the performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed film (UASFF) reactor treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) were investigated. Long-term performance of the UASFF reactor was first examined with raw POME at a hydraulic loading rate (HRT) of 3 d and an influent(More)
Graphene is one of the most promising materials in the field of nanotechnology and has attracted a tremendous amount of research interest in recent years. Due to its large specific surface area, high thermal conductivity, and superior electron mobility, graphene is regarded as an extremely attractive component for the preparation of composite materials. At(More)
In this study, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) have been successfully produced from transesterification reaction between triglycerides and methyl acetate, instead of alcohol. In this non-catalytic supercritical methyl acetate (SCMA) technology, triacetin which is a valuable biodiesel additive is produced as side product rather than glycerol, which has lower(More)
The intrinsic growth, substrate uptake, and product formation biokinetic parameters were obtained for the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium ljungdahlii, grown on synthesis gas in various pressurized batch bioreactors. A dual-substrate growth kinetic model using Luong for CO and Monod for H2 was used to describe the growth kinetics of the bacterium on these(More)
Fatty acid esterification is increasingly realized as a reactive distillation (RD) process because of its formation being affected by the chemical equilibrium. The reactive distillation column performance for the production of isopropyl palmitate by esterification of the palmitic acid with isopropanol has been studied in the present research. The reaction(More)
This study investigates the influence of alkali (Na, K), alkaline earth (Ca, Mg) and transition (Fe) metal nitrates on CO2 gasification reactivity of pistachio nut shell (PNS) char. The preliminary gasification experiments were performed in thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and the results showed considerable improvement in carbon conversion;(More)
TiO2 thin film photocatalyst was successfully synthesized and immobilized on glass reactor tube using sol-gel method. The synthesized TiO2 coating was transparent, which enabled the penetration of ultra-violet (UV) light to the catalyst surface. Two photocatalytic reactors with different operating modes were tested: (a) tubular photocatalytic reactor with(More)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely investigated metal oxides due to its extraordinary surface, electronic and catalytic properties. However, the large band gap of TiO2 and massive recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs limit its photocatalytic and photovoltaic efficiency. Therefore, increasing research attention is now being(More)
Hydrogen may be considered a potential fuel for the future since it is carbon-free and oxidized to water as a combustion product. Bioconversion of synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrogen was demonstrated in continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTBR) utilizing acetate as a carbon source. An anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum catalyzed(More)