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Equations are derived for potassium (K+) dynamics in simplified models of brain tissue. These describe K+ movement in extracellular space, transfer of K+ associated with current flow through cells (the so-called spatial buffer mechanism) and equilibration between extracellular space and cytoplasm. Numerical calculations show that the principal data on K+(More)
It is commonly assumeda, 7,9 that the solution to the diffusion equation with point source, derived from the equivalent heat problem s , describes ion migration in the brain. We show both theoretically and experimentally that the above solution must be generalized for iontophoresis of ions which are confined to the extracellular space of the brain. We(More)
Ion-selective micro-electrodes have been used to measure K+ and Ca2+ activity changes in extracellular space beneath the surface of the neocortex and cerebellar cortex during current flow across the tissue surface in anaesthetized rats. Inward currents produced decreases of [K+]o and outward currents produced increases, with insignificant changes in(More)
The flux of K+ produced by electric current across the pia-arachnoid surface of the neocortex of anaesthetized rats has been studied with K+-selective electrodes in a cup at the surface and with flame photometry. The potential differences developed across three regions of the rat brain (neocortex, cerebellum, hippocampus) have been measured as [K+] was(More)
Magnetic fields were measured with SQUID magnetometry outside the skull of anaesthetised rabbits during initiation and propagation of spreading depression (SD) in the cortex. Slowly changing fields (up to 1.4 pT) were observed during the propagation phase, from 4-8.5 min after initiation of SD with KCl application, with maxima at about 6 min. The peak(More)
Work with ion-selective microelectrodes on the retina of the honeybee drone has shown that potassium is released from photoreceptors during activity and enters glial cells. Measurements of the extracellular voltage gradients indicate that, in this preparation, currents flowing through the glial cells in the 'spatial buffer' pattern account for a large(More)
In the isolated chick retina, the propagation velocity of Spreading Depression (SD) was approximately doubled and the frequency of spontaneous waves was substantially increased with solutions bubbled with 5% CO2 instead of air, at constant pH (7.5-7.6). There was no effect on SD of raised pO2. Large changes of pH (to 6.4 and 9.4) produced, respectively,(More)