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BACKGROUND In 1997, pathogenic avian influenza A/Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) viruses emerged as a pandemic threat to human beings. A non-pathogenic variant, influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3), was identified as a leading vaccine candidate. We did an observer-blind, phase I, randomised trial in healthy volunteers to assess safety, tolerability, and antigenicity of(More)
Antigenically well-matched vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses are urgently required. Human serum samples after immunization with MF59 or nonadjuvanted A/duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) vaccine were tested for antibody to 1997-2004 human H5N1 viruses. Antibody responses to 3 doses of nonadjuvanted vaccine were poor and were higher after(More)
BACKGROUND Pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) has the potential to cause a major global pandemic in humans. Safe and effective vaccines that induce immunologic memory and broad heterotypic response are needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS Healthy adults aged 18-60 and > 60 years (n = 313 and n = 173, respectively) were randomized (1:1) to receive two primary(More)
BACKGROUND Typhoid fever causes more than 21 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths yearly worldwide, with more than 90% of the disease burden being reported from Asia. Epidemiological data show high disease incidence in young children and suggest that immunization programs should target children below two years of age: this is not possible with(More)
Influenza is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality through frequent seasonal epidemics and infrequent pandemics. Morbidity and mortality rates from seasonal influenza are highest in the most frail, such as the elderly, those with underlying chronic conditions and very young children. Antigenic mismatch between strains recommended for vaccine(More)
The short-term protective effect on exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and the duration of action of formoterol, given by metered dose aerosol at a dose of 24 micrograms, were compared with salbutamol (200 micrograms) and placebo in twelve asthmatic EIA-positive patients in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three period cross-over study. On each treatment day(More)
BACKGROUND The safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine (Sub/MF59; FLUAD, Novartis Vaccines) was evaluated among elderly Chinese subjects (> or = 60 years of age). After a preliminary Phase I, open-label study (n = 25) to assess safety 1-14 days post-vaccination, a comparative observer-blind, randomised, controlled clinical(More)
Stroke is the second single highest cause of death in Europe. The low reliability of animal models in replicating the human disease is one of the most serious problems in the field of medical and pharmaceutical research about stroke. The standard models for the study of ischemic stroke are often poorly predictive as they simulate only partially the human(More)
BACKGROUND In the context of early vaccine trials aimed at evaluating the safety profile of novel vaccines, abnormal haematological values, such as neutropenia, are often reported. It is therefore important to evaluate how these trials should be planned not to miss potentially important safety signals, but also to understand the implications and the(More)