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Multiple sclerosis is increasingly being recognized as a neurodegenerative disease that is triggered by inflammatory attack of the CNS. As yet there is no satisfactory treatment. Using experimental allergic encephalo myelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, we demonstrate that the cannabinoid system is neuroprotective during EAE. Mice(More)
Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) requires the exclusion of other possible diagnoses. For this reason, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) should be routinely analysed in patients with a first clinical event suggestive of MS. CSF analysis is no longer mandatory for diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS, as long as MRI diagnostic criteria are fulfilled. However,(More)
This review on the role of neurofilaments as surrogate markers for axonal degeneration in neurological diseases provides a brief background to protein synthesis, assembly, function and degeneration. Methodological techniques for quantification are described and a protein nomenclature is proposed. The relevance for recognising anti-neurofilament(More)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new method that could aid analysis of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) by capturing thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL). Meta-analyses of data for time domain OCT show RNFL thinning of 20.38 microm (95% CI 17.91-22.86, n=2063, p<0.0001) after optic neuritis in MS, and of 7.08 microm(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of longitudinal plasma neurofilament heavy chain protein (NfH) levels as an indicator of clinical progression and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS A cross-sectional study involving 136 clinically heterogeneous patients with ALS and 104 healthy and neurological controls was extended to include a(More)
We aimed to evaluate the potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) axonal damage biomarker NfH(SMI35) in the laboratory-supported differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes. Patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD; n = 22), multiple-system atrophy (MSA; n = 21), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP; n = 21), corticobasal degeneration (CBD; n(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are difficult to differentiate solely on clinical grounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies investigating retinal changes in both diseases focused primarily on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) while rare data are available on deeper intra-retinal layers. (More)
INTRODUCTION It has still not been clearly established whether the cognitive deficits of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) are caused by a disturbance in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics or an underlying metabolic disturbance. OBJECTIVE To identify the possible associations between biochemical markers, the neuroimaging characteristics, and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) and total macular volume (TMV) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Measures of retinal atrophy are associated with the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, in MS, data on the relation of OCT(More)
As first remarked by Charles Darwin (1877), very young children frequently have difficulty when naming or choosing colors. To investigate the cause of this difficulty, we have tested preschoolers (mean age = 4.1) for hue discrimination and hue memory and compared their results with those of preadolescents (mean age = 9.6) and young adults (mean age = 25.8).(More)