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Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a family of growth factors with essential and multiple roles during embryonic development. In mammals, three isoforms (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3) have been described. In the nervous system, the presence of TGF-beta1 has remained undetectable in other structures than meninges and choroids plexus, while(More)
A monoclonal antibody raised in mouse in response to homogenates of Remark ganglia and dorsal mesentery of chicken embryos was found to exhibit a unique reactivity towards myogenic cells, heart, striated muscles, and smooth muscles in chicken and quail. Indirect immunofluorescence assays were performed at different stages of chicken and quail embryonic(More)
BACKGROUND The formation of the neural tube (neurulation) involves two mechanisms: primary and secondary neurulation. In chicks, there is also an overlap zone, where both mechanisms work together. Homocysteine (Hcy) may have an important teratogenic role in neural tube defects (NTD) when folic acid levels are considered normal. Recently, Hcy capability to(More)
The increase of brain size relative to body size-encephalization-is intimately linked with human evolution. However, two genetically different evolutionary lineages, Neanderthals and modern humans, have produced similarly large-brained human species. Thus, understanding human brain evolution should include research into specific cerebral reorganization,(More)
The non-inducible chaperone heat shock cognate 70 kDa (Hsc70) is regulated during development. We now characterize its dynamic expression pattern from gastrulation to early organogenesis. Throughout this developmental period, hsc70 transcripts were largely restricted to neuroectoderm- and mesoderm-derived structures. In stage 10 embryos, Hsc70 protein was(More)
The difficulties in quantifying the 3D form and spatial relationships of the skeletal components of the ribcage present a barrier to studies of the growth of the thoracic skeleton. Thus, most studies to date have relied on traditional measurements such as distances and indices from single or few ribs. It is currently known that adult-like thoracic shape is(More)
Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which viewing achromatic letters/numbers leads to automatic and involuntary color experiences. In this study, voxel-based morphometry analyses were performed on T1 images and fractional anisotropy measures to examine the whole brain in associator grapheme-color synesthetes. These analyses provide(More)
The cerebellum is a modular structure that integrates information in a topographical manner. The membrane receptors of the Eph family and their ligands play important roles in early regionalization, as well as in the formation of topographic connections of the nervous system. Here, we show that the expression of the Eph receptors -A4 and -A7, and of their(More)
It has long been maintained that the ciliary muscle derives from mesenchymal cells. The embryonic development of the avian ciliary muscle was studied in chick embryos from stage 25 HH to the time of hatching. Serial sections of the eye were stained routinely or immunocytochemically using the monoclonal antibody 13F4, which recognizes a cytoplasmic antigen(More)
The endocranial surface description and comparative analyses of two new neandertal occipital fragments (labelled SD-1149 and SD-370a) from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) reveal new aspects of neandertal brain morphological asymmetries. The dural sinus drainage pattern, as observed on the sagittal-transverse system, as well as the cerebral(More)