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Behavioral categories were measured in rats left on an elevated plus-maze for 5 min, in addition to the traditional measures. Four independent factors emerged from a factor analysis. The variables that loaded highly and positively on Factor 1, seemingly related with anxiety, were: number of entries onto open arms, time spent on open arms, percentage of(More)
The present study investigated the behavioral effects of five 5-HT agonists and antagonists in the rat elevated-plus-maze using conventional and ethologically derived measures. An anxiolytic effect of the 5-HT1A agonist ipsapirone (0.25, 0.75, and 2.25 mg/kg) was detected by risk-assessment and scanning but not by percentage of open-arm entries and time(More)
Ascending 5-HT projections from the median raphe nucleus (MRN), probably to the hippocampus, are implicated in the acquisition of contextual fear (background stimuli), as assessed by freezing behavior. Foreground cues like light, used as a conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical fear conditioning, also cause freezing through thalamic transmission to the(More)
The effect of the non-selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist trifluoromethyl-phenylpiperazine (TFMPP, 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 microg) and the preferential 5-HT2C agonist 6-chloro-2(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine (MK-212, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 microg) microinjected into the ventral or dorsal hippocampus was investigated in anxiety measures of rats exposed to the elevated plus-maze(More)
The authors studied the effect of multiple threshold determinations on local and global (root-mean-square) short-term fluctuation in 30 subjects (10 controls, 10 glaucoma suspects, and 10 glaucoma patients) with a mean age of 56.70 years. Five custom programs were designed on the Octopus perimeter in which the total number of threshold determinations was(More)
1. This paper reports an experiment examining the influence of context on latent inhibition using conditioned freezing behavior as an index. 2. Two groups of 8 Wistar rats (290-320 g) were placed in one chamber (Context 2) and either exposed 7 times or not to a sound stimulus (68 dB, 90 s). Two additional groups of 8 rats received the same stimulation in a(More)
The present study investigated the effects of midazolam and pentylenetetrazole upon repeating and varying sequences of responses. Rats were exposed to a multiple schedule with two components. Under the VARY component, water was provided if the current sequence of four responses differed from each of the five previous ones; under the REPEAT component, water(More)
  • N Almeida-Filho, J J Mari, E Coutinho, J F França, F Fernandes, S B Andreoli +106 others
  • 2008
mapping of the human amygdala, hippocampal region and entorhinal cortex: intersubject variability and probability maps. review of the diagnosis, pharmacologic treatment, and economic aspects of anxiety disorders. Prim care companion. Innate and conditioned reactions to threat in rats with amygdaloid lesions. A. Sex effects in defensive behaviors: baseline(More)
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