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Mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and III have been shown to produce superoxide but the exact contribution and localization of individual sites have remained unclear. We approached this question investigating the effects of oxygen, substrates, inhibitors, and of the NAD+/NADH redox couple on H2O2 and superoxide production of isolated mitochondria(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is an adult-onset movement disorder of largely unknown etiology. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations of the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1) cause the recessive PARK6 variant of PD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Now we generated a PINK1 deficient mouse and(More)
Mitochondrial function is a key determinant of both excitability and viability of neurons. Here, we demonstrate seizure-dependent changes in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the epileptic rat hippocampus. The intense pathological neuronal activity in pilocarpine-treated rats exhibiting spontaneous seizures resulted in a selective decline of the(More)
Oxidative stress and protein aggregation are biochemical hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), a frequent sporadic late-onset degenerative disorder particularly of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in impaired spontaneous movement. PARK6 is a rare autosomal-recessively inherited disorder, mimicking the clinical picture of PD with(More)
Mitochondria are cellular organelles crucial for energy supply and calcium homeostasis in neuronal cells, and their dysfunction causes seizure activity in some rare human epilepsies. To directly test whether mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes are abnormal in the most common form of chronic epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), living human brain(More)
In the present work, by titrating cytochrome c oxidase (COX) with the specific inhibitor KCN, the flux control coefficient and the metabolic reserve capacity of COX have been determined in human saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers. In the presence of the substrates glutamate and malate, a 2.3 +/- 0.2-fold excess capacity of COX was observed in(More)
PURPOSE For the antiepileptic drug (AED) topiramate (TPM), neuroprotective effects have been reported in models of focal cerebral ischemia and experimental status epilepticus, but the putative mechanism of action has remained elusive. METHODS We studied the effects of TPM on mitochondrial function in the pilocarpine rat model of chronic epilepsy and in(More)
Isolated cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) deficiency is one of the most frequent respiratory chain defects in humans and is usually caused by mutations in proteins required for assembly of the complex. Mutations in nuclear-encoded structural subunits are very rare. In a patient with Leigh-like syndrome presenting with leukodystrophy and severe epilepsy, we(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases and aging. But the exact sites of ROS generation in brain tissue remained so far elusive. Here, we provide direct experimental evidence that at least 50% of total ROS generation in succinate-oxidizing homogenates of brain tissue can be attributed(More)
PURPOSE Recent clinical studies raised concern of a cognitive teratogenicity of the major antiepileptic drug valproate. To investigate possible cerebral correlates, we established a forced self-application schedule by diluting valproate in the drinking water of pregnant Wistar rats. METHODS After application of medium (MD) and high doses (HDs) with mean(More)