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In sprouting angiogenesis, specialized endothelial tip cells lead the outgrowth of blood-vessel sprouts towards gradients of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. VEGF-A is also essential for the induction of endothelial tip cells, but it is not known how single tip cells are selected to lead each vessel sprout, and how tip-cell numbers are(More)
Through its involvement in inflammation, opsonization, and cytolysis, the complement protects against infectious agents. Although most of the complement proteins are synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS), the role of the complement system in the normal or ischemic CNS remains unclear. Here we demonstrate for the first time that neural progenitor(More)
The ubiquitously expressed cell surface glycoprotein CD47 (integrin-associated protein, IAP) was originally identified as a regulator of integrin-dependent leukocyte responses to extracellular matrix proteins. However, it has been shown that CD47 has several important functions in addition to regulating integrin activation. Extensive studies in murine(More)
Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump, which undergoes a photocycle consisting of several distinct intermediates. Previous studies have established that the M-->N step of this photocycle involves a major conformational change of membrane embedded alpha-helices. In order to further investigate this conformational change, we have studied the(More)
The behavior of threonine residues in the bacteriorhodopsin (bR) photocycle has been investigated by Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. L-Threonine labeled at the hydroxyl group with 18O (L-[3-(18)O]threonine) was incorporated into bR and the bR-->M FTIR difference spectra measured. Bands are assigned to threonine vibrational modes on the(More)
Bacteriorhodopsin functions as a light-driven proton pump in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. A variety of studies have established that a proton is transferred over an approximately 10 A distance from Asp 96 to the retinylidene Schiff base during the M --> N transition of the bR photocycle. In order to further explore the mechanism of this(More)
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) functions as a light-driven proton pump in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. A major feature of bR is the existence of an active site which includes a retinylidene Schiff base and amino acid residues Asp-85, Asp-212, and Arg-82. This active site participates in proton transfers and regulates the visible absorption of(More)