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The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent. Abstract We examine the impact of urban form and public transit supply on the commute mode choices and annual miles driven of(More)
Unpredictable rainfall is an important risk for agricultural activity, and farmers in developing countries often receive incomplete insurance from informal risk-sharing networks. We study the demand for, and effects of, offering formal index-based rainfall insurance through a randomized experiment in an environment where the informal risk sharing network(More)
Biomass combustion with traditional cookstoves causes substantial environmental and health harm. Nontraditional cookstove technologies can be efficacious in reducing this adverse impact, but they are adopted and used at puzzlingly low rates. This study analyzes the determinants of low demand for nontraditional cookstoves in rural Bangladesh by using both(More)
We estimate the development effects of electrification across Brazil over the period 1960-2000. Brazil relies predominantly on hydropower, the generation of which requires intercepting water at high velocity. We simulate a time series of hypothetical electricity grids for Brazil for the period 1960-2000 that show how the grid would have evolved had(More)
Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage. To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned 380 communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments-community motivation and information;(More)
We examine the effect of political decentralization on pollution spillovers across jurisdictional boundaries. Upstream water use has spillover effects on downstream jurisdictions, and greater decentralization (i.e. a larger number of political jurisdictions managing the same river) may exacerbate these spillovers, as upstream communities have fewer(More)
Large literatures in economics and political science examine democracy's impact on health, education, and other development indicators, but the political economy of electricity allocation has been ignored in previous work. Politicians determine electricity consumption patterns through state ownership and regulation (e.g. price subsidies). This study uses(More)
The rural northwestern districts of Bangladesh, home to 10 million people, experience a pre-harvest seasonal famine, locally known as Monga, with disturbing regularity. Surprisingly, out-migration from the Monga-prone districts is not all that common. This research tests whether migration could play any role in Monga mitigation. We implemented a randomized(More)