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Macrophages (mφ) are essential for intestinal homeostasis and the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unclear whether discrete mφ populations carry out these distinct functions or if resident mφ change during inflammation. We show here that most resident mφ in resting mouse colon express very high levels of CX3CR1, are avidly phagocytic(More)
Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) continuously migrate through lymphatics to mesenteric lymph nodes where they initiate immunity or tolerance. Recent research has focused on populations of intestinal DCs expressing CD103. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of two distinct CD103− DC subsets in intestinal lymph. Similar to CD103+ DCs, these(More)
Oral tolerance is the state of local and systemic immune unresponsiveness that is induced by oral administration of innocuous antigen such as food proteins. An analogous but more local process also regulates responses to commensal bacteria in the large intestine and, together, mucosally induced tolerance appears to prevent intestinal disorders such as food(More)
The identification of intestinal macrophages (mφs) and dendritic cells (DCs) is a matter of intense debate. Although CD103+ mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) appear to be genuine DCs, the nature and origins of CD103− MPs remain controversial. We show here that intestinal CD103−CD11b+ MPs can be separated clearly into DCs and mφs based on phenotype, gene profile,(More)
Cross-presentation of cellular antigens is crucial for priming CD8+ T cells, and generating immunity to intracellular pathogens—particularly viruses. It is unclear which intestinal phagocytes perform this function in vivo. To address this, we examined dendritic cells (DCs) from the intestinal lymph of IFABP-tOVA 232-4 mice, which express ovalbumin in small(More)
The αE integrin chain CD103 identifies a subset of migratory dendritic cells (DCs) in the gut, lung, and skin. To gain further understanding of the function of CD103+ DCs in regulating adaptive immunity in vivo, we coupled ovalbumin (OVA) to the CD103 antibody M290 (M290.OVA). Intraperitoneal injection of M290.OVA induced OVA-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell(More)
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is mainly produced at barrier surfaces by T cells and innate lymphoid cells and is crucial to maintain epithelial integrity. However, dysregulated IL-22 action leads to deleterious inflammation and is involved in diseases such as psoriasis, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) is a soluble inhibitory(More)
we examined dendritic cells (DCs) from the intestinal lymph of IFABP-tOVA 232-4 mice, which express ovalbumin in small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Among lymph DCs (LDCs) only CD103þ CD11b CD8aþ DCs cross-present IEC-derived ovalbumin to CD8þ OT-I T cells. Similarly, in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), cross-presentation of IEC–ovalbumin was(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) in the small intestine (SI) and colon are fundamental to direct intestinal immune responses; they migrate to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and prime T cells. We demonstrate anatomical segregation of lymphatic drainage from the intestine, specifically that DCs from the SI and colon migrate to different nodes within the MLN, here(More)
The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation. In the current review we discuss the function of intestinal cDC and(More)
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