A. McGarry Houghton

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Mice lacking macrophage elastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12, or MMP-12) were previously shown to be protected from the development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and from the accumulation of lung macrophages normally induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke. To determine the basis for macrophage accumulation in experimental emphysema, we now(More)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Recent data suggest that tumor-associated inflammatory cells may modify lung tumor growth and invasiveness. To determine the role of neutrophil elastase (encoded by Elane) on tumor progression, we used the loxP-Stop-loxP K-ras(G12D) (LSL-K-ras) model of mouse lung adenocarcinoma to generate(More)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by airspace enlargement and peribronchial lymphoid follicles; however, the immunological mechanisms leading to these pathologic changes remain undefined. Here we show that cigarette smoke is a selective adjuvant that augments in vitro and in vivo Th17, but not Th1, cell differentiation via the(More)
Macrophages are aptly positioned to function as the primary line of defence against invading pathogens in many organs, including the lung and peritoneum. Their ability to phagocytose and clear microorganisms has been well documented. Macrophages possess several substances with which they can kill bacteria, including reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide,(More)
Mechanical ventilation, often required to maintain normal gas exchange in critically ill patients, may itself cause lung injury. Lung-protective ventilatory strategies with low tidal volume have been a major success in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Volutrauma causes mechanical injury and induces an acute inflammatory(More)
Approximate recursion relations which give upper and lower bounds on the free energy are described. Optimal calculations of the free energy can then be obtained by treating parameters within the renormalization equations variationally. As an example, a particularly simple lower bound approximation which preserves the symmetry of the Hamiltonian (the(More)
We develop and describe new approaches to the problem of interacting Fermions in spatial dimensions greater than one. These approaches are based on generalizations of powerful tools previously applied to problems in one spatial dimension. We begin with a review of one-dimensional interacting Fermions. We then introduce a simplified model in two spatial(More)
Bosonization of degenerate fermions yields insight both into Landau Fermi liquids, and into non-Fermi liquids. We begin our review with a pedagogical introduction to bosonization, emphasizing its applicability in spatial dimensions greater than one. After a brief historical overview, we present the essentials of the method. Well known results of Landau(More)
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