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For asymptotically periodic systems, a powerful (phase) reduction of the dynamics is obtained by computing the so-called isochrons, i.e. the sets of points that converge toward the same trajectory on the limit cycle. Motivated by the analysis of excitable systems, a similar reduction has been attempted for non-periodic systems admitting a stable fixed(More)
Among enteric caliciviruses, noroviruses belong to the genus Norovirus, one of the four accepted genera in the family Caliciviridae. These single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses are highly variable both genetically and antigenically. Several animal enteric caliciviruses that are morphologically indistinguishable and genetically closely related to human(More)
Porcine noroviruses and sapoviruses belong to the family Caliciviridae and are rarely reported in European countries. In this study, swine stools from a region representative of northern Europe were screened for these viruses by RT-PCR. Both porcine noroviruses and sapoviruses were detected, showing their circulation in this region. The porcine norovirus(More)
Noroviruses, belonging to the family Caliciviridae, have been identified in human beings and in several animal species including cattle. The distribution of bovine norovirus infections was investigated by both RT-PCR to detect norovirus genomes and a virus-like particles-based ELISA to detect genotype 2 bovine norovirus antibodies. During a 1-year(More)
Human noroviruses (NoVs) are considered a worldwide leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Due to a combination of prolonged shedding of high virus levels in feces, virus particle shedding during asymptomatic infections, and a high environmental persistence, NoVs are easily transmitted pathogens. Norovirus (NoV) outbreaks have often been(More)
BACKGROUND Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Few epidemiological data regarding the NoV strains circulating in African countries are available. OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of NoV in Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso) in both symptomatic and asymptomatic gastroenteritis patients. STUDY DESIGN Patients both with and(More)
Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is of special concern, particularly in high income countries were waterborne infections are less frequent than in developing countries. High HEV seroprevalences can be found in European pig populations. The aims of this study were to obtain prevalence data on HEV infection in swine in Belgium and to(More)
Bovine noroviruses are enteric pathogens that are detected in stool samples from cattle. Five genogroups are currently described in the genus Norovirus (family Caliciviridae), and within the genogroups, sequences are further divided into genotypes according to genetic homology and phylogenetic relationships. In this study, stool specimens from Belgian(More)
sequence-based scheme for epidemiological typing of clinical and environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila. Addition of neuA, the gene encoding N-acylneuraminate cytidylyl transferase, increases the discriminatory ability of the consensus sequence-based scheme for typing Legionella pneumophi-la serogroup 1 strains. al. Pan-European study on(More)
Noroviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. They are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis in humans and clinical signs and lesions of gastroenteritis were reported in bovines. Due to their genetic proximity, potential zoonotic transmission or animal reservoir can be hypothesized for noroviruses.(More)