Learn More
BACKGROUND Several viruses can cause diarrheal disease, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Existing diagnostic methods include ELISA and nucleic acid amplification, usually performed individually. OBJECTIVES (1) To develop a multiplexed assay for simultaneous detection of major enteric viral pathogens. (2) Quantitation of viral load by(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood diarrhoea can be caused by many pathogens that are difficult to assay in the laboratory. Molecular diagnostic techniques provide a uniform method to detect and quantify candidate enteropathogens. We aimed to develop and assess molecular tests for identification of enteropathogens and their association with disease. METHODS We(More)
Etiologic studies of diarrhea are limited by uneven diagnostic methods and frequent asymptomatic detection of enteropathogens. Polymerase chain reaction-based stool pathogen quantification may help distinguish clinically significant infections. We performed a nested case-control study of diarrhea in infants from a community-based birth cohort in Tanzania.(More)
Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, and Microsporidia are eukaryotic enteropathogens that are difficult to detect in stool samples because they require special stains and microscopy. We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reaction with 4 primer sets to amplify Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cystoisospora belli, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and(More)
Detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) typically depends on identification of virulence genes from stool cultures, not on stool itself. We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that detects key DEC virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, bfpA, ipaH, LT, STh, aaiC, aatA). The assay involved a multiplex PCR reaction followed by(More)
Nucleic acid amplification for the enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia is complicated by low target template concentrations and PCR inhibitors. In this work we designed dual capture oligonucleotides for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia 18S rRNA targets which when utilized during DNA extraction from stool improved the limit of detection of our(More)
Diarrhea can be caused by a range of pathogens, including several bacteria. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, biochemical tests, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are laborious. We developed a 7-plex PCR-Luminex assay to simultaneously screen for several of the major diarrhea-causing bacteria directly in fecal specimens,(More)
Detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. Here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. First, we evaluate the molecular detection and(More)
Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, and many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight(More)
The paper illustrates a search strategy for continuous speech recognition based on the recently developed Fast Segmental Viterbi Algorithm (FSVA) [5], a new search strategy particularly e ective for very large vocabulary word recognition. The FSVA search has been extended to deal with continuous speech using a network that merges a general lexical tree and(More)