A . M . Skalka

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Integration of retroviral DNA into the host chromosome requires a virus-encoded integrase (IN). IN recognizes, cuts and then joins specific viral DNA sequences (LTR ends) to essentially random sites in host DNA. We have used computer-assisted protein alignments and mutagenesis in an attempt to localize these functions within the avian retroviral IN protein.(More)
Our comparison of deduced amino acid sequences for retroviral/retrotransposon integrase (IN) proteins of several organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, reveals strong conservation of a constellation of amino acids characterized by two invariant aspartate (D) residues and a glutamate (E) residue, which we refer to as the(More)
Retroviral DNA integration is catalyzed by the viral protein integrase. Here, it is shown that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a host cell protein, also participates in the reaction. DNA-PK-deficient murine scid cells infected with three different retroviruses showed a substantial reduction in retroviral DNA integration and died by apoptosis. Scid(More)
Retroviral integrase (IN) functions to insert retroviral DNA into the host cell chromosome in a highly coordinated manner. IN catalyzes two biochemically separable reactions: processing of the viral DNA ends and joining of these ends to the host DNA. Previous studies suggested that these two reactions are chemically similar and are carried out by a single(More)
Retroviral integrases (INs) contain two known metal binding domains. The N-terminal domain includes a zinc finger motif and has been shown to bind Zn2+, whereas the central catalytic core domain includes a triad of acidic amino acids that bind Mn2+ or Mg2+, the metal cofactors required for enzymatic activity. The integration reaction occurs in two distinct(More)
Examination of the life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has shown that multiple levels of regulation exist, including some which require the virus-encoded Rev protein. In the absence of Rev, mRNAs encoding the structural proteins remain untranslated, a phenomenon which appears, in part, to be caused by nuclear entrapment of these RNA(More)
Retroviral DNA integration creates a discontinuity in the host cell chromatin and repair of this damage is required to complete the integration process. As integration and repair are essential for both viral replication and cell survival, it is possible that specific interactions with the host DNA repair systems might provide new cellular targets for human(More)
We have reviewed the current state of knowledge concerning the three enzymes common to all retroviruses. It is informative to consider them together, since their activities are interrelated. The enzymatic activities of RT and IN depend on processing of polyprotein precursors by PR. Furthermore, RT produces the viral DNA substrate to be acted upon by IN. All(More)
Integration of viral DNA into a chromosome of the infected host cell is required for efficient replication of a retroviral genome, and this reaction is mediated by the virus-encoded enzyme integrase (IN). As IN plays a pivotal role in establishing infection during the early stages of the retroviral life cycle, it is an attractive target for therapeutic(More)
BACKGROUND Members of the structurally-related superfamily of enzymes that includes RNase H, RuvC resolvase, MuA transposase, and retroviral integrase require divalent cations for enzymatic activity. So far, cation positions are reported in the X-ray crystal structures of only two of these proteins, E. coli and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNase(More)