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Although many studies have investigated reflexes after stimulation of either cutaneous or proprioceptive afferents, much less is known about responses after more natural perturbations, such as stumbling over an obstacle. In particular, the phase dependency of these responses and their relation to the stumbling behavior has received little attention. Hence(More)
While many studies have shown that there is a phase-dependent modulation of proprioceptive and exteroceptive reflexes during gait, little is known about such modulation for auditory reflexes. To examine how startle reactions are incorporated in an ongoing gait pattern, unexpected auditory stimuli were presented to eight healthy subjects in six phases of the(More)
In this study, dual-task interference in obstacle-avoidance tasks during human walking was examined. Ten healthy young adults participated in the experiment. While they were walking on a treadmill, an obstacle suddenly fell on the treadmill in front of their left leg during either midswing, early stance, or late stance of the ipsilateral leg. Participants(More)
A new method to study the reactions to unexpected mechanical perturbations during human walking on a treadmill is presented. Perturbations consisted of an obstruction of the forward swinging foot during the early swing phase. These were caused by obstacles which were dropped on the treadmill in front of the subject. The timing of the perturbation was(More)
The present study investigated whether short-latency stretch reflexes are present during human stumbling reactions. While subjects walked on a treadmill, the forward sway of the foot was unexpectedly obstructed with an obstacle. All subjects showed reflex responses with average latencies of 34-42 ms in both the upper and the lower leg flexors and extensors(More)
Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway of the foot. In general, older adults used the same(More)
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